STATE AND LOCAL

MIDTERM Chapters 1-8
__1. The idea that over the next century, the population will become
a majority of non-white people.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__2. A two house legislature, as an additional check on government power and abuse.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__3. A set of rituals, ‘sacred’ documents, common holidays, ‘pantheon,’
practices, and beliefs that bind a society today is sometimes referred as this.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__4. Common set of norms and mores that are shared by citizens and unite a society
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__5. This 1917 law made Puerto Ricans, among others, US citizens
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__6. Any power not given by the Constitution to the federal government is
reserved to the States or the people.
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__7. Provision in the Constitution that requires states to honor laws of other states.
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__8. Allows for alternative method of amending the Constitution,
currently being pursued to subdue federal power
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__9. British natural rights philosopher who argued that government was
established as a social contract and given powers only to guarantee those rights.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__10. Lincoln’s primary economist who contended that the only real way to get
rid of slavery was to advance productivity and raise the value of labor
or labor power of the population to make it uneconomical.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__11. His argument for division of powers was the basis for the separation of
powers, checks and balances created by the Constitution
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__12. Wrote that Americans were a new ‘race’ who considered what you could do, not who your parents were.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__13. Concept of dispersing powers between state and national authority with national supremacy
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__14. A basic notion of the American Constitutional order based on fear of governmental excess.
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__15. This was intended to guarantee a limited government on basis that it could only have the powers elaborated to it.
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__16. A major fear of any system of majority rule
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__17. Checks and balances
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__18. Among those whose express this complaint that the Constitution limits
what government can do ‘for’ citizens are Obama and Hillary Clinton.
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__19. Among others, Isaiah Berlin expressed the view that the Constitution
protects individual rights by limiting what government can do.
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__20. Concept that government should act in behave of people but leaves open a path to brutal tyranny
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__21. State legislature places a ballot measure to allow voters to decide on a measure as potential law.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__22. Petition drive to allow voters to decide on removing an elected office from office.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__23. Florida, like some states, gives the Governor the power to remove local offices for cause.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__24. Petition drive to put a proposed law on the ballot for voters to decide
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__25. Began the process that districts have to be redrawn after each census
to be equal in population, originally referred to as ‘one man, one vote.’
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__26. Overturned a Texas law that had been upheld in the Hardwicke case and
which outlawed certain sexual behavior by adults, and paved the way for same sex marriage.
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__27. Overturned FEC restrictions on businesses contributing to political
campaigns because it was First Amendment free speech
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__28. Argued that at-large voting could be discriminatory against ‘minority’ representation
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__29. Expanded the power of government to seize property under the doctrine
of eminent domain if doing so increased the tax base as in public interest.
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__30. Are supposedly inherent in government
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__31. Those not given per se to federal government are left to the States or the people
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__32. These are stipulated as expressly given to the Federal government by the Constitution.
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__33. Also known as necessary and proper clause, it has been used to
tremendously expand the powers of the Federal government
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__34. Constitutional prohibition on retroactively changing legal consequences of an act
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__35. Governmental act to punish a citizen without providing them with due process
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__36. Writ requiring a person held in custody to be brought before a court to
determine legality of their confinement
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__37. Decision making by bureaucrats on whether an individual or group is in
compliance or violation of regulatory law
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__38. Calculating an agency budget without reference to previous budget
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__39. Second stage of policy process often carried out by unelected bureaucrats
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation E. Adjudication
__40. Opening governmental activities to market entities which perform them more economically and efficiently
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__41. Putting together a budget plan build on previous budget
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__42. Concept that an elected official is there to do as the constituency wants them to do.
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. Oversight
__43. Concept in representation theory that elected officials operate on their
judgment and conscience or expertise and not on the basis of any
perception or expression of constituent interest.
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__44. Third stage of policy process involving legislative review of policy or actions of government
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__45. Some governors have the power to go through legislation or other law
and strike any part with which they take exception
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__46. Actionable civil wrong which can result in damages
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. Tort
__47. Pushing the determination as to how to utilize grant money to the local
level instead of having it run by federal agencies.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. tort
__48. Theory as to influence on salience of topics and issues in
public mind or legislative or executive consideration.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. Tort
__49. Federally ordered acts of local government for which no appropriation is forthcoming.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. tort
__50. Refers to changes in civil law aiming to reduce ability of ‘victims’ to
litigate or reducing prospective damages.
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__51. Also known as marble cake theory, it suggests federal intrusion into state and local authority
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__52. Concept sometimes termed layer cake, viewing clear lines of demarcation
and checks and balances between federal and state/local government.
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__53. Federal expenditures coercing state/local government to perform as directed
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__54. Determination of amount of grant revenue based on statistical information
about the entity receiving funding, probably based on census.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__55. Method of calculation of amount of a grant under fiscal federalism
devised by experts/statistician, etc.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__56. Awarded based on a broad or general use for a wide range of services.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__57. Awarded based on set specific use or services.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__58. Largely unregulated campaign funds
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__59. Nominating election limited to members of the party
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__60. Strictly regulated campaign contributions
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__61. Nominating election which is not restricted to members of the party
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__62. Drawing elected official districts to favor a party or group
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__63. Determination as to how many of the 435 members of Congress each state
is entitled to based on its population in the previous census
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__64. All elective districts must be restructured after each census based on
rules such as equal population.
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__65. Electoral mandate requiring that the population of a district be of an ethnic majority
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__66. Philosophy in law that judges should be able to make law
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__67. Concept that if there is a winner, there must be a loser, which becomes
problematic in economics where no transaction takes place unless there is
governmental coercion unless all parties perceive they have gained from it.
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__68. Organizations that are tax exempt under IRS code which raise money to influence political campaigns.
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__69. Theory in law that judges should limit themselves to interpretation of law not the creation of it
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__70. Policymaking relationship among legislative subcommittees, bureaucrats, and interest groups
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__71. Automatically terminates a rule, law, agency or function on a certain date unless it renewed
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__72. Concept that people act or vote based on their perception of what is in
their interest, or at least to the extent of their knowledge.
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__73. Legal scholar and law school professor, of the Clintons and Obama,
who advocated judicial activism and held the Constitution to be a ‘living’ document
that should be changed by interpretation (but then government is not limited).
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe

65—73 A
57—64 B
49—56 C
41—48 D