FINAL EXAM Chapters 9-17
Section 1

1. Legal traditions on precedents developed through court cases over time, sometimes back to English law.
2. Sometimes called the ‘deep state,’ this is sometimes described as support within an agency for its own function
and for its clients and agenda and for the pay, perks, and security of its employees.
3. Disputes between individuals or organizations that may have caused harm but did not involve law-breaking.
4. Potential legal responsibility for damages caused by civil wrong-doing.
5. A plaintiff pays nothing in attorney fees unless the attorney wins an award.
6. Legislation passed by an elected body.
7. Rules and requirements created by unelected bureaucrats.
8. Legal responsibility for full damages regardless of the degree of contribution to the harm.
9. Also known as nationalization of the Bill of Rights, this describes the gradual of extension of protections against infringement of rights by the
Federal authority to the states to protect personal liberties from violation by them on a right by right, case by case basis.
10. Persons or groups not directly involved in an action but who submit written arguments in a case.
11. Review decisions of trial courts to determine constitutionality or whether errors were made.
12. An appellate court determines which cases it will hear on appeal.
13. All judges assigned to a particular court hear and decide a case.
14. A judicial election in which voters choose between keeping or ousting and incumbent judge.
15. The making of new law through judicial interpretation of laws and constitutions.
16. Self-imposed limits on courts to defer to legislative or original intent or previous court decisions.
17. A theory that overall crime rates can be reduced by strictly enforcing laws against petty offenses.
18. Government intrusion into personal privacy which may have been warranted in national security
matters but are extended and politicized by applying them to political opponents.
19. A prosecutor’s decision to simply drop charges.
20. Offer to a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser offense or a reduced penalty.
21. The likelihood of a former offender to repeat criminal acts.
22. Minimum sentences for various crimes that are enacted into law by legislatures.
23. To restore to good or upstanding or lawful standing or behavior.
24. Factors or circumstances of a crime that would cause a juror or the court to favor imposing the harshest sentence available.
25. Characteristics of a defendant and the circumstances of a crime leading to imposition of a lighter sentence.
26. Most states rewrote death penalty laws following this decision which overturned most of them on varied bases.

Section 2

1. Legislatively set punishment for various crimes that limit discretion of courts.
2. A government that provides very specific function, such as a school district, water management district, or mosquito control district.
3. $1 tax per $1000 of assessed valuation of property, expressed as rate set by a government.
4. Legal doctrine that local governments possess only those powers expressly granted by their charter.
5. Established a ‘totality of circumstances’ test to be used to decide whether the at-large elections resulted in racial discrimination.
6. Racial and gender representation in government that is equal to that of the makeup of the entire population.
7. Efforts to limit or restrict population growth and commercial and industrial growth.
8. Rewards granted by government officeholders to political supporters in the form of government jobs or contracts or grants.
9. Core urban area with predominately urban populations and close ties to the central city.
10. Metropolitan areas that adjoin each other creating a continuous urban environment over an extended area.
11. The area of a central city in which poverty, joblessness, crime and social dependency are persistent.
12. Movement of ‘upper class’ residents and trendy high priced restaurants and boutiques to downtown locations, seen as revitalizing them.
13. Extension of city boundaries over adjacent territory in unincorporated areas,
often to increase the tax base; usually requires voter approval by residents in the areas.
14. Concentration of racial minorities in an area as a result of demographics or economics, not by law.
15. Those who seek to benefit unfairly from services paid for by others.
16. Associations of governments in a region to deal with problems or provide services.
17. Acronym that refers to residents who oppose nearby public or private projects or development –
stadiums to low income housing.
18. Local ordinances that limit property use by dividing communities into various residential,
commercial, industrial zones, requiring landowners to use land in conformity with regulations for the zone in which they are located.
19. A fee paid to local government connected to new development – money, land, etc, in approval for
land use plans – may offset cost of services – roads, sewage, etc.
20. Fees required of builders and developers in exchange for approval of plans,
presumably for increased government costs created by the new development.
21. Judicial process by which government can take private property for public use or betterment.
22. Fair price for property taken through eminent domain.
23. Clause in 5th Amendment of the US Constitution prohibiting government seizing property without just compensation.
24. The original term for federally aided programs carried out by local government agencies to
supposedly rebuild ‘blighted’ areas of central cities.
25. Organizations incorporated to provide programs, offer services, and engage in other activities that promote
or support a community’s urban development, largely financed by government grants or tax exempt contributions.
26. Federal grants, tax exemptions, government concessions, and loans to communities to revitalize distressed areas.

Section 3

1. Abandoned, idled, or underused industrial or commercial properties some of which may be environmentally contaminated.
2. Miles per gallon mandates on vehicles set by government.
3. Orlando area part of the rail corridor created under such programs as MAP21.
4. Federal grants regulating and financing cleanup of toxic waste under EPA auspices.
5. Perception that the environmental ‘movement’ holds a higher priority for certain ethnic groups.
6. Estimate of value of goods and services produced by an economy in a given year.
7. Value of goods and services produced divided by population.
8. Method of calculation of burden of government expense compared to total economic activity.
9. Taxes that require higher income individuals to pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes
than those with lower income and which thereby tend to suppress investment.
10. Taxes which tend to take a larger share of income of lower income individuals, such as property in tax,
excise tax, sales tax, and social security tax.
11. Dollar value placed on a property for tax purposes by local government assessor.
12. Categories of property not subject to taxation.
13. Permitted federal government to levy a graduated or progressive tax on individual income.
14. Proposed income tax policy under which anyone pays the same rate regardless of income.
15. An example of this would be a national sales tax.
16. Form of government sponsored ‘insurance’ held by employers to provide medical care and money
for employees injured in course of work.
17. Excludes certain portion of value of owner-occupied homes from property tax.
18. Issued by governments that pledge their ‘full faith and credit’ including tax revenue as basis of repayment.
19. Revenue bonds issued by a municipality to obtain funds to purchase land or build facilities or factories
for private businesses to foster development and employment.
20. 1896 Supreme Court decision which sanctioned separate but equal
treatment of people based on their level of melanin in an 8-1 ruling.
21. Plan to create federally mandated curriculum for schools.
22. In 1954, the Court overturned de jure segregation by unanimous vote and ordered it ended with ‘all deliberate speed.’
23. 1948 case which prohibited segregated schools for Mexicans in Texas and other states.
24. 1967 case in which court overturned Virginia law which prohibited ‘interracial’ marriage.
25. Supreme Court standard used to determine whether a law violates a person or group’s rights
under the due process and equal protection clauses of the United States Constitution.
26. Attempt to overcome de facto segregation that produced racial imbalances by assigning pupils to schools by race
rather than residence and therefore requiring transportation to those schools.

Section 4

1. Movement of white residents to suburbs in response to increasing numbers of minorities in neighborhoods and schools,
but also attributable to rising crime rates, insurance costs, etc.
2. This law prohibited racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.
3. Programs pursued by government or private organizations to overcome the results of past
discriminatory treatment against individuals of any group including minorities and women,
and giving them preferential treatment in employment, promotion, admissions, and other activities.
4. Case that challenged affirmative action, ruling that race may be considered a ‘plus’ factor but banning specific quotas.
5. Governments requiring a certain percentage of contracts to go to minority contractors.
6. Pay levels and promotions for jobs traditionally considered male of female should be equalized.
7. Pregnancy termination up to the point of birth or when a fetus is considered viable.
8. 1973 case in which Supreme Court made abortion legal during first trimester.
9. Law passed under Clinton administration limiting marriage as between a man and a woman only.
10. Legal status some states gave to same sex couples to provide rights,
responsibilities, and benefits similar to those of opposite sex marriages.
11. Demonstrated that per pupil expenditure, teacher salaries, classroom
size, facilities and materials were unrelated to student performance.
12. Schools emphasizing instruction in particular areas in an effort to improve quality and attract students.
13. Operated with public funds by private community groups under contract from public school
districts or other granting and funding agencies.
14. Given to parents to pay for their children’s education at schools of their choice,
redeemable by the schools in public funds.
15. Provided for standardized tests as a determinate of students having reached government
established academic standards to evaluate school performance.
16. Guarantees that faculty members who have demonstrated competence for a period of time cannot
be dismissed except for ‘cause’– a serious infraction of rules or dereliction of duty in open hearing.
17. First Amendment clause prohibiting government interference with religious practices and beliefs.
18. Supreme Court severely limited exercise of religion in public schools.
19. Supreme Court restricted reading of the Bible, etc. in public schools.
20. Concept that in the near future, nearly all poor people will be uneducated women and their dependent children.
21. Federal grants to states to expand health insurance to children who would not otherwise quality for Medicaid.
22. Private health care organizations that provide medical services for fixed fees.
23. Federal health insurance for the aged.
24. Federal aid to supplement states to provide health insurance for the poor.
25. Direct federal cash assistance to needy people who are aged, blind, or disabled.
26. Supplemental federal income tax credit for low income working people.
27. ACA requirement that individuals obtain medical insurance under penalty of law.
28. Sometimes called Obama care, it has forced people to buy insurance and forced prices higher
and reduced insurance options and medical care available to people.
29. States were required to set these up to supposedly make health insurance available to their citizens.
Florida, along with 25 other states challenged this in court.
30. Recognizes a city or county to exercise all powers not specifically prohibited to it by charter or law.

Part I

A. retention election
B. judicial restraint
C. Furman v Georgia law
E. en banc
F. incorporation
G. regulatory law
H. administrative state
I. appellate courts
J. torts
K. contingency
L. damages
M. amicus curiae
N. criminalization of policy differences
O. determinate sentences
P. mitigating factors
Q. judicial activism
R. joint and several liability
S. statutory law
T. discretionary jurisdiction
U. aggravating factors
V. broken window
W. recidivism
X. regulatory law
Y. nol pro
Z. plea bargaining

. Part 2

A. gentrification
C. eminent domain
D. megalopolis
E. de facto segregation
F. Voting Rights Act of 1982
G. enterprise zones
H. metropolitan statistical area
I. free riders
J. patronage
K. mandatory minimums
L. special function district
M. millage
N. Dillon's rule
O. proportional representation
P. growth management
Q. annexation
R. community development authorities
S. takings clause
T. zoning
U. urban renewal
V. impact fees
W. just compensation
X. exaction
Y. inner city
Z. councils of governments

Part 3

A. assessed value
B. fair tax
C. Plessy v Ferguson
D. strict scrutiny
E. regressive
F. gdp
G. white phenomenon
H. brownfields
I. superfund
J. flat tax
M.Common Core
N. progressive
O. exemption
P. Brown v Bd of Ed
Q. workers compensation
R. per capita gdp
S. general obligation bonds
T. Loving v Virginia
U. homestead exemption
V. 16th amendment
W. govt expenditure as % of GDP
X. industrial development bonds
Y. Mendez v Westchester
Z. busing

Part 4

A. Coleman Report
B. establishment clause
H. Open Housing Act of 1968
I. Roe v Wade
J. Charter Schools
K. feminization of poverty
L. set-a-sides
M. civil unions
N. Medicare
O. Bakke
P. individual mandate
Q. Magnet Schools
R. Medicaid
S. comparable worth
T. Earned Income Tax Credit
U. Affordable Care Act
V. Home Rule
W. Abbington Township v Schempp
W. partial birth abortion
Y. vouchers
Z. affirmative action
AA. Engle v Vitale
BB. exchanges
CC. tenure
DD. white flight

Grading Scale
91 - 107 A
81 - 90 B
71 - 80 C
61 - 70 D