STATE AND LOCAL EXAMS

MIDTERM Chapters 1-8
__1. The idea that over the next century, the population will become
a majority of non-white people.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__2. A two house legislature, as an additional check on government power and abuse.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__3. A set of rituals, ‘sacred’ documents, common holidays, ‘pantheon,’
practices, and beliefs that bind a society today is sometimes referred as this.
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__4. Common set of norms and mores that are shared by citizens and unite a society
A. Political culture
B. Civil religion
C. Browning of America
D. Bicameral
__5. This 1917 law made Puerto Ricans, among others, US citizens
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__6. Any power not given by the Constitution to the federal government is
reserved to the States or the people.
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__7. Provision in the Constitution that requires states to honor laws of other states.
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__8. Allows for alternative method of amending the Constitution,
currently being pursued to subdue federal power
A. Jones Act
B. Article V Convention of the States
C. Tenth Amendment
D. Full faith and credit clause
__9. British natural rights philosopher who argued that government was
established as a social contract and given powers only to guarantee those rights.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__10. Lincoln’s primary economist who contended that the only real way to get
rid of slavery was to advance productivity and raise the value of labor
or labor power of the population to make it uneconomical.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__11. His argument for division of powers was the basis for the separation of
powers, checks and balances created by the Constitution
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__12. Wrote that Americans were a new ‘race’ who considered what you could do, not who your parents were.
A. De Crevoceur
B. John Locke
C. Montesquieu
D. Henry Carey
__13. Concept of dispersing powers between state and national authority with national supremacy
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__14. A basic notion of the American Constitutional order based on fear of governmental excess.
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__15. This was intended to guarantee a limited government on basis that it could only have the powers elaborated to it.
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__16. A major fear of any system of majority rule
A. Limited government
B. Tyranny of the majority
C. Written constitution
D. Federalism
__17. Checks and balances
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__18. Among those whose express this complaint that the Constitution limits
what government can do ‘for’ citizens are Obama and Hillary Clinton.
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__19. Among others, Isaiah Berlin expressed the view that the Constitution
protects individual rights by limiting what government can do.
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__20. Concept that government should act in behave of people but leaves open a path to brutal tyranny
A. Charter of negative liberties
B. Positive liberty
C. Negative liberty
D. Separation of powers
__21. State legislature places a ballot measure to allow voters to decide on a measure as potential law.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__22. Petition drive to allow voters to decide on removing an elected office from office.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__23. Florida, like some states, gives the Governor the power to remove local offices for cause.
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__24. Petition drive to put a proposed law on the ballot for voters to decide
A. Initiative
B. Referendum
C. Recall
D. Removal power
__25. Began the process that districts have to be redrawn after each census
to be equal in population, originally referred to as ‘one man, one vote.’
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__26. Overturned a Texas law that had been upheld in the Hardwicke case and
which outlawed certain sexual behavior by adults, and paved the way for same sex marriage.
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__27. Overturned FEC restrictions on businesses contributing to political
campaigns because it was First Amendment free speech
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__28. Argued that at-large voting could be discriminatory against ‘minority’ representation
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County __29. Expanded the power of government to seize property under the doctrine
of eminent domain if doing so increased the tax base as in public interest.
A. Lawrence v Texas
B. Citizens United v FEC
C. Baker v Carr
D. Kelo v New London Connecticut
E. US v Osceola County
__30. Are supposedly inherent in government
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__31. Those not given per se to federal government are left to the States or the people
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__32. These are stipulated as expressly given to the Federal government by the Constitution.
A. Reserved powers
B. Enumerated or delegated powers
C. Implied powers
D. Removal power
__33. Also known as necessary and proper clause, it has been used to
tremendously expand the powers of the Federal government
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__34. Constitutional prohibition on retroactively changing legal consequences of an act
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__35. Governmental act to punish a citizen without providing them with due process
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__36. Writ requiring a person held in custody to be brought before a court to
determine legality of their confinement
A. Ex post facto
B. Bills of attainder
C. Habeas corpus
D. Elastic clause
__37. Decision making by bureaucrats on whether an individual or group is in
compliance or violation of regulatory law
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__38. Calculating an agency budget without reference to previous budget
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__39. Second stage of policy process often carried out by unelected bureaucrats
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation E. Adjudication
__40. Opening governmental activities to market entities which perform them more economically and efficiently
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__41. Putting together a budget plan build on previous budget
A. Zero based
B. Base line
C. Privatization
D. Implementation
E. Adjudication
__42. Concept that an elected official is there to do as the constituency wants them to do.
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. Oversight
__43. Concept in representation theory that elected officials operate on their
judgment and conscience or expertise and not on the basis of any
perception or expression of constituent interest.
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__44. Third stage of policy process involving legislative review of policy or actions of government
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__45. Some governors have the power to go through legislation or other law
and strike any part with which they take exception
A. Line item veto
B. Trustee
C. Delegate
D. oversight
__46. Actionable civil wrong which can result in damages
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. Tort
__47. Pushing the determination as to how to utilize grant money to the local
level instead of having it run by federal agencies.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. tort
__48. Theory as to influence on salience of topics and issues in
public mind or legislative or executive consideration.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. Tort
__49. Federally ordered acts of local government for which no appropriation is forthcoming.
A. Agenda setting
B. Devolution
C. Unfunded mandate
D. tort
__50. Refers to changes in civil law aiming to reduce ability of ‘victims’ to
litigate or reducing prospective damages.
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__51. Also known as marble cake theory, it suggests federal intrusion into state and local authority
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__52. Concept sometimes termed layer cake, viewing clear lines of demarcation
and checks and balances between federal and state/local government.
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__53. Federal expenditures coercing state/local government to perform as directed
A. Fiscal federalism
B. Dual federalism
C. Cooperative federalism
D. Tort reform
__54. Determination of amount of grant revenue based on statistical information
about the entity receiving funding, probably based on census.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__55. Method of calculation of amount of a grant under fiscal federalism
devised by experts/statistician, etc.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__56. Awarded based on a broad or general use for a wide range of services.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__57. Awarded based on set specific use or services.
A. Block grants
B. Categorical grants
C. Formula grants
D. Demographic data
__58. Largely unregulated campaign funds
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__58. Nominating election limited to members of the party
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__59. Strictly regulated campaign contributions
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__60. Nominating election which is not restricted to members of the party
A. Closed primary
B. Open primary
C. Hard money
D. Soft money
__61. Drawing elected official districts to favor a party or group
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__62. Determination as to how many of the 435 members of Congress each state
is entitled to based on its population in the previous census
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__63. All elective districts must be restructured after each census based on
rules such as equal population.
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__64. Electoral mandate requiring that the population of a district be of an ethnic majority
A. Reapportionment
B. Redistricting
C. Gerrymandering
D. Majority minority districts
__65. Philosophy in law that judges should be able to make law
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__66. Concept that if there is a winner, there must be a loser, which becomes
problematic in economics where no transaction takes place unless there is
governmental coercion unless all parties perceive they have gained from it.
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__67. Organizations that are tax exempt under IRS code which raise money to influence political campaigns.
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__68. Theory in law that judges should limit themselves to interpretation of law not the creation of it
A. Judicial restraint
B. Judicial activism
C. Zero sum game
D. 527s
__69. Policymaking relationship among legislative subcommittees, bureaucrats, and interest groups
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__70. Automatically terminates a rule, law, agency or function on a certain date unless it renewed
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__71. Concept that people act or vote based on their perception of what is in
their interest, or at least to the extent of their knowledge.
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe
__72. Legal scholar and law school professor, of the Clintons and Obama,
who advocated judicial activism and held the Constitution to be a ‘living’ document
that should be changed by interpretation (but then government is not limited).
A. Sunset laws
B. Iron triangles
C. Rational voting
D. Tribe

65—72 A
57—64 B
49—56 C
41—48 D




FINAL EXAM Chapters 9-17
1. Legal traditions on precedents developed through court cases over time, sometimes back to English law.
2. Sometimes called the ‘deep state,’ this is sometimes described as support within an agency for its own function and for its clients and
agenda and for the pay, perks, and security of its employees.
3. Disputes between individuals or organizations that may have caused harm but did not involve law-breaking.
4. Potential legal responsibility for damages caused by civil wrong-doing.
5. A plaintiff pays nothing in attorney fees unless the attorney wins an award.
6. Legislation passed by an elected body.
7. Rules and requirements created by unelected bureaucrats.
8. Legal responsibility for full damages regardless of the degree of contribution to the harm.
9. Also known as nationalization of the Bill of Rights, this describes the gradual of extension of protections against infringement of rights by the
Federal authority to the states to protect personal liberties from violation by them on a right by right, case by case basis.
10. Persons or groups not directly involved in an action but who submit written arguments in a case.
11. Review decisions of trial courts to determine constitutionality or whether errors were made.
12. An appellate court determines which cases it will hear on appeal.
13. All judges assigned to a particular court hear and decide a case.
14. A judicial election in which voters choose between keeping or ousting and incumbent judge.
15. The making of new law through judicial interpretation of laws and constitutions.
16. Self-imposed limits on courts to defer to legislative or original intent or previous court decisions.
17. A theory that overall crime rates can be reduced by strictly enforcing laws against petty offenses.
18. Government intrusion into personal privacy which may have been warranted in national security matters but are extended
and politicized by applying them to political opponents.
19. A prosecutor’s decision to simply drop charges.
20. Offer to a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser offense or a reduced penalty.
21. The likelihood of a former offender to repeat criminal acts.
22. Minimum sentences for various crimes that are enacted into law by legislatures.
23. To restore to good or upstanding or lawful standing or behavior.
24. Factors or circumstances of a crime that would cause a juror or the court to favor imposing the harshest sentence available.
25. Characteristics of a defendant and the circumstances of a crime leading to imposition of a lighter sentence.
26. Most states rewrote death penalty laws following this decision which overturned most of them on varied bases.
27. Legislatively set punishment for various crimes that limit discretion of courts.
28. A government that provides very specific function, such as a school district, water management district, or mosquito control district.
29. $1 tax per $1000 of assessed valuation of property, expressed as rate set by a government.
30. Legal doctrine that local governments possess only those powers expressly granted by their charter.
31. Established a ‘totality of circumstances’ test to be used to decide whether the at-large elections resulted in racial discrimination.
32. Racial and gender representation in government that is equal to that of the makeup of the entire population.
33. Efforts to limit or restrict population growth and commercial and industrial growth.
34. Rewards granted by government officeholders to political supporters in the form of government jobs or contracts or grants.
35. Core urban area with predominately urban populations and close ties to the central city.
36. Metropolitan areas that adjoin each other creating a continuous urban environment over an extended area.
37. The area of a central city in which poverty, joblessness, crime and social dependency are persistent.
38. Movement of ‘upper class’ residents and trendy high priced restaurants and boutiques to downtown locations, seen as revitalizing them.
39. Extension of city boundaries over adjacent territory in unincorporated areas,
often to increase the tax base; usually requires voter approval by residents in the areas.
40. Concentration of racial minorities in an area as a result of demographics or economics, not by law.
41. Those who seek to benefit unfairly from services paid for by others.
42. Associations of governments in a region to deal with problems or provide services.
43. Acronym that refers to residents who oppose nearby public or private projects or development – stadiums to low income housing.
44. Local ordinances that limit property use by dividing communities into various residential, commercial,
industrial zones, requiring landowners to use land in conformity with regulations for the zone in which they are located.
45. A fee paid to local government connected to new development – money, land, etc, in approval for land use plans
– may offset cost of services – roads, sewage, etc. 46. Fees required of builders and developers in exchange for approval of plans,
presumably for increased government costs created by the new development.
47. Judicial process by which government can take private property for public use or betterment.
48. Fair price for property taken through eminent domain.
49. Clause in 5th Amendment of the US Constitution prohibiting government seizing property without just compensation.
50. The original term for federally aided programs carried out by local government agencies to supposedly rebuild ‘blighted’ areas of central cities.
51. Organizations incorporated to provide programs, offer services, and engage in other activities that promote
or support a community’s urban development, largely financed by government grants or tax exempt contributions.
52. Federal grants, tax exemptions, government concessions, and loans to communities to revitalize distressed areas.
53. Abandoned, idled, or underused industrial or commercial properties some of which may be environmentally contaminated.
54. Miles per gallon mandates on vehicles set by government.
55. Orlando area part of the rail corridor created under such programs as MAP21.
56. Federal grants regulating and financing cleanup of toxic waste under EPA auspices.
57. Perception that the environmental ‘movement’ holds a higher priority for certain ethnic groups.
58. Estimate of value of goods and services produced by an economy in a given year.
59. Value of goods and services produced divided by population.
60. Method of calculation of burden of government expense compared to total economic activity.
61. Taxes that require higher income individuals to pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes
than those with lower income and which thereby tend to suppress investment.
62. Taxes which tend to take a larger share of income of lower income individuals, such as property in tax,
excise tax, sales tax, and social security tax.
63. Dollar value placed on a property for tax purposes by local government assessor.
64. Categories of property not subject to taxation.
65. Permitted federal government to levy a graduated or progressive tax on individual income.
66. Proposed income tax policy under which anyone pays the same rate regardless of income.
67. An example of this would be a national sales tax.
68. Form of government sponsored ‘insurance’ held by employers to provide medical care and money for employees injured in course of work.
69. Excludes certain portion of value of owner-occupied homes from property tax.
70. Issued by governments that pledge their ‘full faith and credit’ including tax revenue as basis of repayment.
71. Revenue bonds issued by a municipality to obtain funds to purchase land or build facilities or factories
for private businesses to foster development and employment.
72. 1896 Supreme Court decision which sanctioned separate but equal’
treatment of people based on their level of melanin in an 8-1 ruling.
73. In 1954, the Court overturned de jure segregation by unanimous vote and ordered it ended with ‘all deliberate speed.’
74. 1948 case which prohibited segregated schools for Mexicans in Texas and other states.
75. 1967 case in which court overturned Virginia law which prohibited ‘interracial’ marriage.
76. Supreme Court standard used to determine whether a law violates a person or group’s rights
under the due process and equal protection clauses of the United States Constitution.
77. Attempt to overcome de facto segregation that produced racial imbalances by assigning pupils to schools by race
rather than residence and therefore requiring transportation to those schools.
78. Movement of white residents to suburbs in response to increasing numbers of minorities in neighborhoods and schools,
but also attributable to rising crime rates, insurance costs, etc.
79. This law prohibited racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.
80. Programs pursued by government or private organizations to overcome the results of past discriminatory treatment
against individuals of any group including minorities and women, and giving them preferential treatment
in employment, promotion, admissions, and other activities.
81. Case that challenged affirmative action, ruling that race may be considered a ‘plus’ factor but banning specific quotas.
82. Governments requiring a certain percentage of contracts to go to minority contractors.
83. Pay levels and promotions for jobs traditionally considered male of female should be equalized.
84. Pregnancy termination up to the point of birth or when a fetus is considered viable.
85. 1973 case in which Supreme Court made abortion legal during first trimester.
86. Law passed under Clinton administration limiting marriage as between a man and a woman only.
87. Legal status some states gave to same sex couples to provide rights,
responsibilities, and benefits similar to those of opposite sex marriages.
88. Demonstrated that per pupil expenditure, teacher salaries, classroom
size, facilities and materials were unrelated to student performance.
89. Schools emphasizing instruction in particular areas in an effort to improve quality and attract students.
90. Operated with public funds by private community groups under contract from public school districts or other granting and funding agencies.
91. Given to parents to pay for their children’s education at schools of their choice, redeemable by the schools in public funds.
92. Provided for standardized tests as a determinate of students having reached government
established academic standards to evaluate school performance.
93. Guarantees that faculty members who have demonstrated competence for a period of time cannot be dismissed except for ‘cause’
– a serious infraction of rules or dereliction of duty in open hearing.
94. First Amendment clause prohibiting government interference with religious practices and beliefs.
95. Supreme Court severely limited exercise of religion in public schools.
96. Supreme Court restricted reading of the Bible, etc. in public schools.
97. Concept that in the near future, nearly all poor people will be uneducated women and their dependent children.
98. Federal grants to states to expand health insurance to children who would not otherwise quality for Medicaid.
99. Private health care organizations that provide medical services for fixed fees.
100. Federal health insurance for the aged.
101. Federal aid to supplement states to provide health insurance for the poor.
102. Direct federal cash assistance to needy people who are aged, blind, or disabled.
103. Supplemental federal income tax credit for low income working people.
104. ACA requirement that individuals obtain medical insurance under penalty of law.
105. Sometimes called Obama care, it has forced people to buy insurance and forced prices higher
and reduced insurance options and medical care available to people.
106. States were required to set these up to supposedly make health insurance available to their citizens.
Florida, along with 25 other states challenged this in court.



90+ A
80-89 B
70-79 C
60-69 D