__1. Alexis de Tocqueville
__2. Jean Jacques Rousseau
__3. John Locke
__4. Adam Smith
__5. John Rawls
__6. Robert Nozick
__7. Thomas Malthus
__8. Jim Crow
__9. Page and Shapiro
__10. Robert Dahl
__11. Roberto Michels
__12. William Domhoff
__13. C. Wright Mills
__14. Alexander Hamilton
__15. Daniel Shays
__16. James Madison
__17. Publius
__18. Montesquieu
__19. John Marshall
__20. Edmund Burke
__21. Charles Beard
__22. Alfred Chandler
__23. John Hancock
__24. Roger Taney
__25. Dred Scott
__26. V. O. Key


__1. American political culture
__2. comparable worth
__3. tyranny of the majority
__4. limited government
__5. natural rights
__6. social contract
__7. mischief of faction
__8. checks and balances
__9. unfunded mandates
__10. judicial review
__11. federal system
__12. confederation
__13. unitary government
__14. sovereignty
__15. express powers
__16. concurrent powers
__17. reserved powers
__18. implied powers
__19. elastic clause
__20. supremacy clause
__21. nullification
__22. commerce clause
__23. dual federalism
__24. cooperative federalism
__25. fiscal federalism
__26. devolution


__1. Lorenz Curve
__2. Currency Act
__3. Iron Act
__4. Lexington Green
__5. Great Compromise
__6. 3/5 Compromise
__7. Federalists
__8. Timurid
__9. Articles of Confederation
__10. Electoral College compromise
__11. agenda setting
__12. Kemp-Roth
__13. Drudge Report
__14. Bill of Rights
__15. hard money
__16. soft money
__17. 2nd Amendment
__18. 19th Amendment
__19. realignment
__20. soft issues
__21. hard issues
__22. Civil Rights Act of 1964
__23. Voting Rights Act of 1965
__24. Civil Rights act of 1968
__25. Fourteenth Amendment
__26. Nationalization of Bill of Rights

PART IV MATCHING            

__1. normal profit          
__2. probable cause         
__3. procedural due process     
__4. habeas corpus          
__5. de facto segregation           
__6. de jure segregation        
__7. establishment clause           
__8. equal protection clause
__9. restrictive covenants          
__10. sampling error        
__11. probability sample        
__12. ecological fallacy of composition
__13. political socialization       
__14. positive apathetics           
__15. voter turnout         
__16. prospective voting           
__17. retrospective voting     
__18. social capital            
__19. pack journalism           
__20. feeding frenzies          
__21. media bias     
__22. civic competence      
__23. party centered voting
__24. candidate centered voting     
__25. issue oriented voting     
__26. party systems         


__1. Marbury v Madison        
__2. McCulloch v Maryland
__3. Gibbons v Ogden        
__4. Lochner v New York
__5. Mapp v Ohio
__6. Schenck v United States
__7. United States v O'Brien
__8. Dennis v United States
__9. Texas v Johnson
__10. New York Times v United States
__11. Barron v Baltimore
__12. Gitlow v New York
__13. Near v Minnesota
__14. Brandenburg v Ohio
__15. Skokie case
__16. New York Times v Sullivan
__17. Roth v United States
__18. Miller v California       
__19. Reno v ACLU       
__20. Engel v Vitale
__21. Roe v Wade        
__22. Griswold v Connecticut    
__23. Webster v Reproductive Health Services
__24. Planned Parenthood v Casey
__25. Bowers v Hardwick     
__26. Whren v United States


__1. Gideon v Wainwright
__2. Miranda  v Arizona
__3. Felker v Turpin
__4. Plessy v Ferguson
__5. Brown v Bd of Education
__6. Lau v Nichols
__7. Bowers v Hardwick
__8. Romer v Evans
__9. Craig v Boren
__10. US v Virginia
__11. Rostker v Goldberg
__12. Bakke case
__13. Adarand v.Pena
__14. Fullilove v Klutnick
__15. Swann case
__16. Loving v Virginia
__17. Shelley v Kraemer
__18. political consultants
__19. packaging
__20. spin control
__21. lobbying
__22. iron triangles
__23. PACs
__24. interest group liberalism
__25. policy atropy
__26. focus groups

Part VII Matching

__1. Federalist Paper
__2. US v Lopez
__3. Dred Scott
__4. Buckley v Vallejo
__5. Harper v Virginia
__6. selective perception
__7. layer cake
__8. marble cake
__9. Faragher v City of Boca Raton
__10. categorical grants
__11. Burlington Industries v Ellreth
__12. Barron v Baltimore
__13. Lemon v Kurtzmann
__14. compelling interest
__15. Zurcher v Stanford Daily
__16. Miami Herald v Tornillo
__17. United States v Playboy
__18. NAACP v Alabama
__19. coverture
__20. Furmann v Georgia
__21. In Re: Gault
__22. Korematsu v United States
__23. Texas v Gregory Lee Johnson
__24. habeas corpus
__25.  ex post facto
__26.  bill of attainder

Part VIII Matching

__1. policy entrepreneurs
__2. 24th Amendment
__3. Jack Kevorkian
__4. Reed v Reed
__5. McGovern-Fraser
__6. FEC
__7. rational choice
__8. referendum
__9.  initiative
__10. amendment
__11. Motor Voter Act
__12. amicus curiae
__13. union shop
__14. closed shop
__15. open shop
__16. right to work
__17. 2002 Campaign Finance Reform Act
__18. policy agenda
__19. window of opportunity
__20. Fox Cable News
__21. satisfysing
__22. natural law
__23. public goods
__24. Tenth Amendment
__25. contract clause
__26. Leviathan

208 possible

181-208 A
161-180 B
141-160 C
120-140 D

Answers to matching part I

A. President of the Continental Congress at time of the signing
of the Declaration of Independence.
B. led a rebellion that convinced many of the inadequacies
of the government under the Articles of Confed.
C. French political scientist who wrote
about American political culture in the early 19th century
D. Scottish economist known for his laissez faire doctrines.
E. Pseudonym for Madison, Hamilton,
and Jay in writing the Federalist Papers.
F. Chief Justice who first established judicial review.
G. this Supreme Court decision said that slaves were property,
not citizens and had no rights.
H. iron law of oligarchy.
I. segregation
J. economic interpretation of the Constitution.
K. wrote about the breakdown of the General Will
with the expansion of government.
L. organized the Constitutional Convention.
M. their study shows that democracy may actually work.
N. natural rights philosopher
O. appointed to Supreme Court by Jackson,
he wrote the Dred Scott decision.
P. libertarian who argued that redistribution of wealth will not work.
Q. elitist theory
R. overpopulation theory
S. argued for a more elevated and enlightened vision of voters in
his book The Responsible Electorate
T. wrote of the need for redistribution of wealth.
U. argued that it is Middle Management that runs corporate America
V. contends that pluralism of interest groups controls America
W. primary writer of Federalist Papers.
X. wrote about balance of powers.
Y. described the small group of very wealthy families
that controls America
Z. British political philosopher who wrote
that elected representatives should act
as delegates of the voters.

Answers to part II matching

A. Madison warned of this danger to a republic
B. governmental authority
C. enumerated to national government by the Constitution
D. 10th Amendment granted these powers to the states
E. marble cake theory that levels of government work and mix together.
F. the set of beliefs and values that are characteristic of our society.
G. these are powers of federal authority that stem from the elastic clause
H. Constitutional doctrine that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
I. separation of powers           
J. loose association of states.
K. primary principle of the Constitution based on
Framers' fear of governmental power and authority.
L. Constitutional provision for regulation of business
by federal government
M. the 'necessary and proper' phrase in the Constitution
that permits it to stretch to fit exigencies.
N. recent legal doctrine that allows litigation based
on different job specs based on gender.
O. power of the Supreme Court to determine
the constitutionality of acts of government.
P. possessed by human beings because
they were endowed by the creator.
Q. fear of those who wanted a republican instead
of a democratic government because it would
protect the rights of the individual and minorities.
R. one central government over a nation
S. philosophical idea that government is set up
by people to protect their rights.
T. doctrine based on idea that precise separation of powers
is possible and desirable (layer cake theory)
U. programs Congress legislates but then states
must find the money to pay for them.
V. expenditure of federal funds on programs
run through state and local government.
W. doctrine that states had the power to refuse
to accept federal laws in their sovereignty
X. these are shared by state and federal government
Y. effort to pass down more authority
from national to state and local government
Z. a government with substantial powers
to political subdivisions but considerable power
to a central governmental authority.

Answers to part III matching

A. process of selective incorporation of the protections
of the Bill of Rights by courts against states
B. new online media
C. first ten amendments to the Constitution
D. government first set up with the American Revolution
which lasted about 12 years, but was too weak
E. plots wealth distribution in a nation by quintiles of population
F. counted 5 slaves as 3 people for purposes of representation
in Congress and for taxes a state owed under the Constitution
G. Arab renaissance which began about 1000 years ago
and spread through W. Africa into Europe
H. American colonial patriots stood against British troops
which had come to confiscate their weapons
I. the name of the legislation of Reagan's tax cut
which cut all taxes and top marginal tax rates from 79 % to 37 %
and stimulated twenty years of economic growth.
J. prohibited any act that infringed on the right to keep and bear arms.
K. outlawed discrimination in public accomodations or facilities.
L. change in political alignment from one party system to another.
M. gave women the right to vote
N. the British government prohibited
the colonies from building any iron mills
O. supporters of the Constitution, and the political party
of Washington, Hamilton, Adams, etc.
P. prohibited discrimination in housing.
Q. specific opinions about policy.
R. campaign contributions that circumvent federal restrictions
by being given to political parties.
S. the reason we have a two house Congress
made of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
T. permited federal officials to send voting registrars
into areas with high percentages of unregistered minority voters.
U. the British prohibited the printing of money in the colonies
severely restricting economic growth.
V. the debate on how to elect the President was resolved
by this which provided state election of electors to choose
the President equal in number to members of Congress,
and the electors would be chosen directly by the voters,
so everybody got what they wanted, but no one
got exactly what they wanted.
W. general positions about issues or policies.
X. Events, the President, and the media often play
a powerful role in determining what is considered
important by policy makers and the population.
Y. campaign contributions which are very restricted by federal law.
Z. more broadly defined citizenship and has been extensively
used to expand protections of the Bill of Rights

Answers to part IV matching

A. process by which people learn their political beliefs and values.
B. periodic shifts in voting patterns and party alignments in US history.
C. tertiary factor in voting decisions.
D. broadcast media leans to left.
E. separation of races by law.
F. statistical measure to estimate how accurate
or how far off a poll may be.
G. approximately one third of those who do not vote
do not because they have lives.
H. Strate and Elder concept of vote choice factors.
I. contracts with prohibitions against resale of property
to minorities which are invalid.
J. 1st Amendment provision that government
may not favor one religion.
K. vote choice based on expectation of candidate performance.
L. evidence may only be obtained by police and used in court
if they had a good reason that led them to it.
M. court order to bring someone being held before the judge
to charge them or release them.
N. contemporary vote decisions have seemed
to pay more heed to individual campaigns.
O. businesses must earn a return at least equal
to what the investment in them would have brought
in alternative investment -- for a firm like GM,
profits of only $5 b may be an economic loss.
P. practices authorities must follow to legitimately
seek to punish anyone.
Q. separation of groups by custom and practice.
R. 14th Amendment doctrine used extensively
to protect people from discrimination.
S. mathematical liklihood that each person
in a population might be questioned in a poll.
T. assumption that an observed phenomenon
can be imputed to a larger population
when there is no valid rationale for making
such a leap because their is no
link between the sample and the larger population.
U. US has one of the lowest levels of this.
V. vote based on evaluation of a candidate's
past performance in office.
W. sum of face to face civic interactions
among citizens in a society.
X. tendency in media to pick up a story
that is exciting and promote it.
Y. probably the secondary force in vote decisions.
Z. media- mania over an issue or scandal.

Answers to part V matching

A. established exclusionary rule.
B. first case of judicial review.
C. steamboat case on regulation of business.
D. "the power to tax is the power to destroy"
E. involved internet and ruled Decency Act unconstitutional.  
F. permitted abortion during first trimester.
G. upheld communist conviction under
a law making it illegal to advocate violent
overthrow of US gov't
H. upheld conviction of a draft card burner
I. upheld law prohibiting sodomy.
J. burning US flag protected by free expression
K. established obscenity test of 'purient interest'
L. began extending Bill of Rights against
state governments through the 14th Amendment.
M. upheld conviction of anti-war protestors during WWI
under Espionage Act on the rule of 'clear and present danger'  
restriction of free speech.
N. 1833 decision limiting Bill of Rights
protections to federal government.
O. allowed publication of Pentagon Papers
on grounds of no prior restraint.
P. in 1931, Supreme Court began to extend
selective incorporation of Bill of Rights.
Q. contemporary community standards
and serious artistic, literary, political or social value
was used as test of obscenity.
R. upheld a conviction of drug possession
without probable cause made
during minor traffic violation stop
S. in 1969, Supreme Court overturned
Klansman's conviction on basis
that no one was likely to take him seriously.
T. allowed certain state restrictions on abortions
including waiting period, notification of spouse or parents.
U. establishment clause prohibits reciting
of prayers in public schools.
V. libel of public officials requires proof of actual malice.
W. allowed state law prohibiting abortion
by public employees or in public hospitals.
X. permitted Nazi march through a predominately
Jewish suburb of Chicago.
Y.declared right of privacy for Americans,
invalidating state law prohibiting use of birth control.
Z. Supreme Court had prevented state regulation
of labor practices as infringement of privacy in 1905.

Answers to part VI matching

A. Citadel case
B. prohibited restrictive covenants.
C. bussing case
D. upheld male only draft.
E. professional campaign advisors
F. accused must be informed of their rights.
G. 'selling' candidates through advertising
H. seeking to influence public policy.
I. set up interest groups to give money to campaigns
J. hyperliberalism may lead to stalemate in policy.
K. 1954 case which declared segregation unconstitutional.  
L. sharpely curtailed affirmative action
M. accused have right to legal counsel.
N. 1896 case which made segregation constitutional
O. declared laws prohibiting interracial marriage
to be unconstitutional.   
P. select groups of people used to evaluate policies,
preferences, programs, positions, spins, etc.
Q. upheld quota system for set asides for minority firms.
R. expanded categories of classifications to sex/gender
distinction but under strict scrutiny
S. allowed restriction of habeas corpus for state prison inmates.
T. pluralist 'group' concept of policy making.    
U. would not end state law prohibiting homosexual acts.
V. schools with lots of non-English speaking students
must offer teaching in 'native tongues.'
W. tight policy communities of Congr. ctte. members,
interest group leaders, and relevant bureaucrats
X. attempt by politicians to turn stories
to their candidate's advantage.
Y. limited affirmative action which discriminated
against non-minorities by invalidating rigid quotas.
Z. struck down Colorado amendment
which violated equal protection for gays.

Part VII Matching Answers

a. an employee could sue for sexual harassment
even without being able to show job related harm
b. phenomenon that people often pay
the most attention to things they agree with
and interpret them according to their own predispositions
c. law passed to apply to an act done priot to its enactment
d. 1833 case holding that bill of rights restrained federal
but not state government
e. classical concept of federalism
f. restricted aid to parochial schools to that
with secular purpose and only where it did not
promote or inhibit religion
g. challenge to campaign finance reform that declared
political action committes legal
h. struck down law banning burning the flag
because that was symbolic speech
protected by First Amendment
i. modified vision of federalism where powers
of different layers of government are shared a
nd not so clearly delineated
j. court order requiring a jailed person be brought
before a judge and an explanation provided
as to why he is being held; usually requires a charge
be formally entered or the person be released
k. law passed providing for a penalty without a trial
l. test by which some ethnic and other classifications
may be upheld if there is no other way to accomplish
the purpose of a law
m. argued in behalf of the ratification of the Constitution
and told what the Framers were thinking when they wrote it
n. in 1944, the court upheld Japanese internment
o. declared poll taxes unconstitutional
p. ruled that an organization did not have to reveal
its membership lists to protect them from harassment
q. a search warrant could be applied to a newspaper
as well as anyone else without violating freedom of press
r. the provision of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
which allowed banning of sexually oriented programming
by cable networks was limited such that any such regulation
must be narrowly tailored to promote a compelling government
s. limited the law creating gun free zones around schools
because it exceeded federal authority
t. held that state could not force paper to print replies by
candidates it had criticized
u. come with strings attached so that they may only
be used for specified purposes
v. court overturned the death penalty
w. pre civil war case in which the court ruled
that slaves as property had no rights
x. established certain legal rights for minors
y. employers are responsible for preventing
and eliminating harassment at work. doctrine which deprived married women
of any separate legal standing or identity from their spouse

Part VIII Matching Answers
a. brief submitted to the court by a party 'friendly' and supportive
of an action before it, and adding addition viewpoints
b. has become the fastest growing news program on its
effort to present more balanced news
c. concept that people act in their own self-interest in making
political and economic decisions
d. services, etc provided by government and shared by all
e. concept that human beings have rights because they are human
which government cannot circumvent
f. union actually involved in 'hiring' workers
g. events which put policy on the agenda for consideration or allow
it the chance to obtain to that
h. physician assisted suicide
i. prohibits 'negative' campaign ads in the month prior to an election,
which will tremendously help incumbents win reelection
the supposed ban it includes on 'soft money' will weaken parties
but do nothing about giving soft money to political action committees
thus strengthening special interest groups, which is what that authors
of the bill claimed to be fighting against
j. petition based demand to put an issue on the ballot
to be voted on by the citizenry
k. laws in some states which allow workers
to decide not to have a union
l. arbitrary gender distinctions violate the equal protection clause
or the 14th amendment - for first time, court upheld claim
of gender discrimination.
m. a company may have a union but employees do not have to join
n. legislature puts an issue on the ballot for people to vote on it.
o. an employee must join the union or at least pay dues to it
p. required states to register voters when they got their drivers'
licenses, but it has also allowed lots of ineligible voters to register
q. prohibited the poll tax
r. public officials/policy makers doing only what is necessary
to keep the electorate content
s. requires ratification by 3/4 of the states or conventions in them
t. commission which called for changes in the way delegates
to the national Democrat convention were chosen to allow more
access by women and minorities
u. powers not delegated to the federal government
or denied to the states are reserved to the states or the people
v. those things which are in the forefront of consideration by
policy makers or the public mind
w. politicians or political leaders who strive to lead by
bringing proposed policies to the agenda for consideration
x. Thomas Hobbes' book describing how government is
necessary to control the people
y. constitutional guarantee of the sanctity of contract
z. set up in 1970's to allow the federal government
to monitor elections