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Study of Global Politics

Classical International System

nation-states with supreme decision making authority with their boundaries
acknowledge no higher authority
only a handful of such countries plausibly exist

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Transitional International System

new world environment
forces more interrelationships among nations

degree of interdependence
less polarization
more flexibility
comes on globalization

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State Centric Lenses
NGO's, MNE's,
OPEC
GATT/WTO
Group of 77

focus on n/s view world through them
their governments are major actors in world politics inadequate

Permeable Borders
cultures cross borders
business crosses borders

Teacup Wars
major actors are peripherally involved
great powers involved indirectly or by stealth

Law of Uneven Development

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Two Divergent Trends

Integrative Tendencies
different countries and cultures meld together
NAFTA, FTAA, EU, Mericur, east Asia sphere
Treay of Maaschrict -- Economic Integrative Process

created EU
built on Common Market
evolved out of interstate agreements

Economic Integrative Process

free trade area (no tariffs among members)
customs union(common tariff toward outside states)
economic union(monetary, fiscal, social policies integrated)
economic integration
political integration
social integration
cultural integration

Regional Subsystems

Disintegrative Tendencies

proliferation of small marginal polities
fueled by rival ethnic conflicts, separatist movements

Ottoman Empire

Neofeudalism

on medieval economic model
weak or nonexistent n/s
can't meet needs of people
economics and trade makes boundaries less enforceable
globalization

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Study of International Relations Before WWI

early efforts at developing adaptive world orders

Haque peace conference

International Cooperation

inter-European agreements (Danube)
Congress of Vienna after Napoleon

Mahan on importance of naval power

Major Thrust was diplomatic history

vacuum cleaner approach
collect details and describe particulars
little theory
organized by time and place
little search for regularities, patterns, uniformities
(sui generis history - events never precisely repeat themselves)
(deja vu - personalities, conditions change
but patterns and parallels repeat)

Euro-centric

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Interbellum Period

finds dramatic shifts in the field
recognition of non-state actors other than national govts
NGO's, Hamas, Al Quaeda, MNC, Vatican, today
Barbary Pirates then

Paradigm Development

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Idealist School

focus on international law
international organizations
morality/ethics in international affairs

human nature is essentially good
altruism, mutual aid, collaboration is possible

fundamental instinct of humans is for welfare of others and makes progress possible
renaissance and enlightenment faith in possibility of advancing civilization
(but does that mean by govt action?)

bad human behavior
not due to evil people
but evil institutions and structural arrangements

wars seen as worst feature of international system

war in not inevitable
change evil arrangements
Kellogg Briand Pact

international society can change itself to achieve that

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Realist School/RealPolitick

power politics

focus on struggle for power between/among nation states

ultimate goal of nation states is security

nation states exist in hostile, archaic environment

must understand different cultures, countries

humanity by nature is sinful, wicked (choice?)

major evil is lust for power to dominate others

int'l affairs is about struggle for power

war of all against all (Hobbes and his Leviathan rendered international

nation states interest is self-interest, self preservation

deter attack
alliances can augment security
balance of power

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Globalist School

struggle for power and security among nations is only one aspect of world politics

need to consider other nonstate actors, economics, non-security issues


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Marxist Paradigm

intellectual roots in Karl Marx

class struggle

state is weapon of bourgeoisie control

int'l socialist revolution to establish dictatorship of the proletariat

Dependency - on Marx, beyond just imperialism

advance sector is wealthy on backs of poor nations

Imperialism - acquiring foreign territory?
through force?
occupation?
thru markets?
cultural imperialism?
is capitalism intrinsically imperialist?
gunboat diplomacy
TR's big stick
Monroe Doctrine?
is development exploitative?

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Methodologies

Traditionalist Methodologies

not 'scientific' method

but insights from first hand participant observation and practical experience

or second hand immersion in great works of

diplomatic history
statesmen's memoirs
international
law and treaties
philosophical writings

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Behaviorist Methodology

more 'rigorous' social science methods

such as data collection and statistical analysis of quantitative data

develop and test theories to explain behavior of international actors

build cumulative body of data based knowledge


Structural Functionalist

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Why countries act as they do

Systemic Factors
external
geography
international connections and links
int'l system structure
effects of foreign policy on state
(huge developing Russia)

National Attribute Factors
demographics
economic
military
govt characteristics
affect foreign policy
(autocratic Russia)

Idiosyncratic Factors
characteristics of individual leaders and groups on d-m
(Stalin)

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Unitary Rational Actor Model(game theory)

1. define situation
2. specify goal
3. weigh all positive options
4. select best option to achieve goal
(Cuban Missile Crisis)

Kennedy and Khruschev (Belosch)
Kerry and Obama

Rational Choice Theory
WWI
Gulf War
liberation of Afghanistan and Iraq

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Bureaucratic Politics

infighting among agencies of govt
over organizational interests

turf wars
State vs Defense Depts(Powell vs Rumsfeld)

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Attentive Public

rally 'round the flag effect

audience costs

military industrial complex

public sector complex

satisfysing