State Laws on Electoral College Voting

Electoral College Watch
(Last updated Nov. 16, 2000)

With the 2000 election under such a slim margin, it could take a few "faithless electors" or absent electors to swing the presidential election when the Electoral College meets on Dec. 18. In history, there have been just nine instances of "faithless electors" who have broken party ranks.

The following are listings of the electors, culled from Hotline sources, and information on the state election laws for each state. If "n/a" is listed, it means the state's election law either does not address faithless electors, or does not have a system set up to replace absent electors.

Alabama (9)
The GOP Electors: Edgar Welden of Birmingham, Elaine Little of Pelham, Jerry Lathan of Theodore, Glen Dunlap of Ozark, Bob Fincher of Woodland, Martha Stokes of Carrollton, Melba Peters of Huntsville, Homer Jackson of Birmingham, Jean Sullivan of Selma
On Faithless Electors: "Each person ... shall agree that, if elected, he or she shall cast a ballot as elector for the nominees [of their party]."
On Absent Electors: "Those of them present ... must at once proceed by ballot and plurality of voters to supply the places of those who fail to attend on that day and hour."


Alaska (3)
The GOP Electors: Bill Allen, Susan Fischetti, Lucy Groh
On Faithless Electors: "The party shall require from each candidate for election a pledge ... he will vote for the candidates nominated by the party of which he is a candidate."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Arizona (8)
The GOP Electors: Joe Arpaio, Dennis Booth, Webb Crockett, Paul Robert Fannin, LaVelle McCoy, Susan Minnaugh, Frank Straka, Linda Barber.
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Arkansas (6)
The GOP Electors: Pat Dodge of West Memphis, Bud Cummins of Little Rock, Mildred Homan of Mountain Home, Betsy Thompson of Monticello, Jim Hedren of Sulphur Springs, Sarah Agee of Prairie Grove
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


California (54)
The Dem Electors: bed and breakfast owner Rachel Binah of Mendocino, Roberts Braden of Chico, Sunil Aghi of Anaheim, Carol Norberg of Roseville, Angelo Tsakopoulous of Carmichael, Therese Horsting of Cotati, Theodore Plant of Walnut Creek, Anni Chung of San Francisco, Don Wilcox of Dana Point, Glen Fuller of Orinda, Howard Schock of Stockton, Art Pulaski of Pacifica, Richard Valle of Union City, John Freidenrich of Atherton, Jason Rodriguez of San Jose, Georgie Huff of San Jose, John Laird of Santa Cruz, Sally Goehring of Oakdale, Harriet Ingram of Fresno, Amy Arambula of Fresno, David Torres of Bakersfield, Rep. Lois Capps (22) daughter Laura Karolina Capps of Berkley, Manuel Lopez of Oxnard, Lane Sherman of Newport Beach, Florence Gold of Granada Hills, Alex Reza of Santa Clarita, Sheldon Cohn of Pacific Palisades, Robert Hurd of Glendora, Joseph Cislowski of West Hollywood, Henry Lozano of Los Angeles, William Wong of Sacramento, Beverly Martin of Los Angeles, Luis Rojas of Montebello, Charles Fuentesof Norwalk, Karen Waters of Inglewood, Trudy Owens of Palos Verses, Keith McDonald of Carson, Florene Pickett of Long Beach, Larry Trullinger of Fresno, Gerard Orozco of Los Angeles, Elsa Favila of Sacramento, Eloise Reyes of San Bernardino, James Garrison of Glendale, Gregory Pettis of Cathedral City, Jill Hardy of Huntington Beach, Stephen Bollinger of Westminster, Mark Lam of Fountain Valley, Robert Jordan of Sacramento, Craig Roberts of San Diego, Kristie Mann of El Cajon, Thor Emblem of Escondido, Ron Oberndirfer of El Cajon, John Koza of Los Altos Hills, Rosalind Wyman of Los Angeles
On Faithless Electors: "The electors ... shall vote by ballot for that person for President and that person for Vice President of the United States, who are respectively, the candidates of the political party which they represent."
On Absent Electors: "In case of the death or absence of any elector chosen, or if the number of electors is deficient for any other reason, the electors then present shall elect, from the citizens of the State, as many persons as will supply the deficiency."


Colorado (8)
The GOP Electors: Bob Beauprez of Lafayette, Marcy Benson of Denver, Robert Dieter of Boulder, Weld County Bush co-chair Mary Hergert of Greeley, Robert Martinez of Castle Rock, Ralph Nager of Denver, Lily Nunez of Littleton, LG Joe Rogers of Denver
On Faithless Electors: "Each presidential elector shall vote for the pair of presidential and vice presidential candidates who received the highest number of votes at the preceding general election in this State."
On Absent Electors: "If there is any vacancy ... the presidential electors present shall immediately proceed to fill such vacancy in the Electoral College."


Connecticut (8)
The Dem Electors: Nick Balletto of New Haven, Kimberly Ford of Bridgeport, Frank Cirillo of Meriden, Marilyn Cohen of West Hartford, Gloria Collins of Vernon, Tom McDonough of Waterbury, Ken Slapin of Norwalk, Clorinda Soldevila of Hartford.
On Faithless Electors: "Each such elector shall cast his ballots for the candidates under whose names he ran on the official election ballot."
On Absent Electors: "If any such elector is absent or if there is a vacancy in the Electoral College for any cause, the electors present shall, before voting for President and Vice President, elect by ballot an elector to fill such vacancy."


Delaware (3)
The Dem Electors: DE AFL-CIO Pres. Mike Begatto of Wilmington, state Sen. Margaret Rose Henry of Wilmington, bookkeeper Ruth Ann Messick of Farmington
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


District of Columbia (3)
The Dem Electors: William Simons, Nadine Winter, Barbara Lett-Simmons
On Faithless Electors: "Each person ... shall, in the presence of the Board of Elections, take an oath or solemnly affirm that he will vote for the candidates of the party he has been nominated to represent."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Florida (25)
The GOP Electors: real estate developer/ex-Jeb Bush business partner Armando Codina, Tampa state Sen. John McKay, retired atty Charles Kane, government worker Maria De la Milera, Sandra Faulkner, H. Gary Morse, Carole Jean Jordan, ex-FL GOP Chair Tom Slade, Marsha Nippert, Robert Woody, FL House Speaker John Thrasher, Orange County Chair Mel Martinez, Feliciano Foyo, Al Hoffman, FL GOP finance chair Alfred Austin, '94 Jeb Bush running mate Tom Feeney, Cynthia Handley, Darryl Sharpton, Bert Moralejo, Jeanne Barber Godwin, Deborah Brooks, FL Black Republicans Council Chair Dorsey Miller, Orlando Mayor Glenda Hood and Palm Beach Sheriff aide Dawn Guzzetta
2 The Dem Electors: Ft. Lauderdale atty/FL Dem Treas. George Platt, Clarence Anthony, Leon Co. Dem Chair Jon Ausman, T. Wayne Bailey, Mitchell Berger, Lance Block, ex-FL Dem Chair Terrie Brady, AG Bob Butterworth, Senate Dem Leader Buddy Dyer, Juanita Geathers, Diane Glasser, Dalas Guevara, Robert Henriquez, Tony Hill, Daryl Jones, Gore FL chair Karl Koch, Chris Korge, Kendrick Meek, state Sen. Les Miller, FL Dem Chair Bob Poe, Marta Prado, Juanita Scott, Patti Wilson Haney, Paulette Wimberly and Jennette Wynn.
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "If ... it should be found that one or more electors are absent, the electors present shall elect by ballot, in the presence of the Governor, a person or persons to fill such vacancy."


Georgia (13)
The GOP Electors: Anna Cablik, Teresa Jeter Chappell, Charles Clay, Fred Cooper, James Edenfield, Winnie LeClercq, nurse Brenda Lopez, Carolyn Dodgen Meadows, GA RNC member Alec Poitevint, Eric Tanenblatt, Cynthia Teasley, Virgil Williams, Bob Young
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Hawaii (4)
The Dem Electors: hair salon owner/'00 state Sen. candidate Marsha Joyner of Honolulu, secretary Joy Kobashigawa-Lewis of Honolulu, Honolulu deputy parks dir Michael Amii of Honolulu, Pedro Racelis Jr of Aiea
On Faithless Electors: "The electors ... shall vote by ballot for that person for President and that person for Vice President of the United States, who are, respectively, the candidates of the political party which they represent."
On Absent Electors: "The vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the alternates."


Idaho (4)
The GOP Electors: Ex-Sen. James McClure of McCall, ex-Gov. Phil Batt of Boise, ex-Rep. George Hansen wife Connie Hansen of Idaho Falls, Nat'l GOP cmte member Oriette Sinclair of Twin Falls
On Faithless Electors: "The electors then present shall immediately proceed to elect, by ballot, in the presence of the Governor, persons to fill such vacancies."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Illinois (12)
The Dem Electors: State Rep. Constance Howard, Cook Co. Commis./Daley brother John Daley, IL Dem vice chair William Marovitz, Rep. William Lipinski (D-IL 03) wife Rose Marie Lipinski, 35th Ward Alderman Vilma Colom, State Sen. James DeLeo, Elk Grove Township Cmte member Joan Brennan, Rep. Danny Davis (D-IL 07) wife Vera Davis, IL Dem Cmte Member Victory McNamara, Highland Park Mayor Dan Pierce, ex-DuPage County Dem Chair Kathryn Harvey, Ex-Kane County coroner Mary Lou Kearns, IL Dem Cmte member John Nelson, IL Dem Cmte member Shirley McCombs, state Rep. Charles Hartke, Marion County Dem Chair Jerry Sinclair, state Rep. Barbara Flynn Currie, Dave Bybee of Silvis, Carolyn Brown Hodge of Paris, Marge Friedman of Park Forest, Molly McKenzie of Belleville, Donald Pedro of Chicago
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Indiana (12)
The GOP Electors: Roger Chiabai of Merrillville, Virgil Scheidt of Columbus, Mike Miner of Pierceton, Marla Irving of Fort Wayne, Don Heckard of Logansport, Beverly Gard of Greenfield, Rodric Bray of Morresville, Virginia Lee, Max Middendorf of Brownstown, Mike Chrysler of Indianapolis, Barbara McClellan, IN GOP Chair Michael McDaniel
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "The electors present shall, by ballot and a majority vote of all those present, fill the vacancy."


Iowa (7)
The Dem Electors: David Tingwald of Iowa City, Lyle Otte of Decorah, Jeff Heland of Burlington, Emil Pavich of Council Bluffs, John O'Brien of Sioux Center, Paulee Lipsman of Des Moines, Ernest Ricehill of Sioux City
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "Those present shall at once proceed to elect, from the citizens of the State, a substitute elector or electors."


Kansas (6)
The GOP Electors: Shari Caywood of Salina, Gene Eastin of Dodge City, Richard Eckert of Wetmore, Susan Estes of Wichita, Mark Heitz of Topeka, Charlie Hostetler of Manhattan
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "The electors present shall immediately proceed to fill, by ballot and by a plurality of votes, such vacancy."


Kentucky (8)
The GOP Electors: George Beard of Louisville, Robert Fearing of Ashland, Dean Johnson of London, ad exec. Michael Shea of Louisville, W.S. Farish Jr. of Versailles, Connie Hayes of Louisville, ex-McCracken Co. GOP Chair Richard Noss of Paducah, Larry Joe Walden of Scottsville
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "Those in attendance shall fill his place by the election of another person, who shall have the same powers as if originally elected by the people."


Louisiana (9)
The GOP Electors: Gov. Mike Foster of Franklin, LA GOP Chair Patricia Brister of Mandeville, Donald Ensenat of New Orleans, State Sen. Heulette Fontenot, Jr. of Livingston, oilman Steve Jordan of Lake Charles, Elizabeth Levy of Alexandria, Al Lippman of Berwick, Elections Commissioner Suzanne Haik Terrell of New Orleans, Michael Woods, Sr. of Shreveport
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Maine (4)
The Dem Electors: Joseph Mayo, William Phillips, Dorothy Melanson, Christopher Babbidge.
On Faithless Electors: "The presidential electors at large shall cast their ballots for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the largest number of votes in the State. The presidential electors of each congressional district shall cast their ballots for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the largest number of votes in each respective congressional district."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Maryland (10)
The Dem Electors: Delegate Mary Ann Love of Glen Burnie, Prince Georges County Dem Central Cmte Chair Mary Murphy of Brandywine, ex-Delegate Gene Counihan of Montgomery Village, Asst MD Sec/Transporation Greg Pecoraro of Westminster, State Sen. Maj. Leader Clarence Blount of Baltimore, MD Dem Vice Chair Mary Jo Neville of Baltimore, State Sen. Pres. Thomas Mike Miller of Clinton, ex-state Sen. Bea Tignor of Upper Marlboro, Ina Taylor of Bel Air, Howard Friedman of Baltimore
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Massachusetts (12)
The Dem Electors: Patricia Armstrong, Russell Ashton, George Barnoski, Robert Colt, Stephen Driscoll, John Flynn, Roberta Goldman, Etta Goodstein, Frederick Koed, Margaret MacKenzie, Carolyne DeVore Parks, Marcia Sweeney
On Faithless Electors: "A pledge by the presidential elector to vote for the candidate named in the filing."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Michigan (18)
The Dem Electors: Ken Oke of Alpena, Don Oteman of Allegan, Lana Boldi of Grand Rapids, DonnaJean Graham of Ovid, John Cherry of Clio, David Taylor of Edwardsburg, Mary Warner of Battle Creek, Jim Ramey of Okamoe, Sigrid Grace of Rochester Hills, Judith Strong of Clinton, Marie Weigold of Farmington, Jeff Jenks of Huntington Woods, Juli Trudell of Ypsilanti, Freman Hendrix of Detroit, Patty Fedewa of Detroit, Charles Prather of Wyandotte, John Kelly of Detroit, Iris Salters of Kalamazoo
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Minnesota (12)
The GOP Electors: Prudy Cameron of Duluth, Carol Bartels of Ironton, Elizabeth Kalisch of White Bear Lake, civil rights activist Matthew Little of St. Paul, Janis Ray, Elmer Dutchman, Georgianna Ruzich, Joan Campbell, Glenda Meixell and John Meuers
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Mississippi (7)
The GOP Electors: Bob Anthony of Jackson, Miki Cassidy of Marks, Thomas Colbert of Brandon, '98 MS 04 nominee Delbert Hosemann of Jackson, Ellen Jernigan of Hernando, John Junkin of Natchez, Kent Nicaud of Pass Christian
On Faithless Electors: "Each person ... shall execute the following statement ... "I do hereby consent and do hereby agree to serve as elector for President and Vice President of the United States, if elected to that position, and do hereby agree that, if so elected, I shall cast my ballot as such for ______ for President and ______ for Vice President of the United States" (inserting in said blank spaces the representative names of the persons named as nominees for said respective offices in the certificate to which this statement is attached)."
On Absent Electors: "Should any elector so chosen fail to attend and give his vote, the other electors attending shall appoint some person or persons to fill the vacancy or vacancies."


Missouri (11)
The GOP Electors: Homer Johnston of St. Louis, John Hancock of St. Louis, John Judd of St. Louis, Marc Ellinger of Jefferson City, Stan Horacek of Kansas City, salesman Michael Korte of St. Joseph, Gordon Elliott of Springfield, David Barklage of Cape Giradeau, Bruce Bredeman of Fulton, Al Rotskoff of St. Louis, atty Dennis Owens of Kansas City
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "The electors attending at the time and place shall appoint a suitable person or persons to fill the vacancy or vacancies."


Montana (3)
The GOP Electors: Thelma Baker, Jack Galt, Tillie Pierce
On Faithless Electors: "They shall cast their ballots for the persons who received the highest number of votes for President and Vice President, respectively."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Nebraska (5)
The GOP Electors: Ex-Sen. Carl Curtis widow Mildred Curtis, ex-state Sen. Howard Lamb, state lobbyist/political consultant Mary Johnson, ex-Rep. John McCollister, Rep. Lee Terry (02) father Lee Terry Sr.
On Faithless Electors: "Each at large presidential elector shall cast his or her ballot for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the highest number of votes in the state. Each congressional district presidential elector shall cast his or her ballot for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the highest number of votes in his or her congressional district."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Nevada (4)
The GOP Electors: Ex-NV GOP Vice Chair Margaret Peggy Wutke of Las Vegas, ex-Assemb. Jane Hamm of Las Vegas, State Sen. Maj. Leader William Raggio of Reno, Northern NV GOP dir Trudy Hushbeck of Carson City.
On Faithless Electors: "The presidential electors shall vote only for the nominees for President and Vice President of the party or the independent candidates that prevailed in the State in the preceding general election."
On Absent Electors: n/a


New Hampshire (4)
The GOP Electors: NH GOP Chair Stephen Duprey, Alida Weergang, Wayne MacDonald and Augusta Petrone
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


New Jersey (15)
The Dem Electors: Paul Bangiola, Angelo Bianchi, Maime Bridgeforth, Dennis Collins, John Garrett, Deborah Lynch, Patricia McCullough, John McGreevey, June Montag, W. Michael Murphy, Jeffrey Nash, Barbara Plumeri, Julia Valdivia, Stephen Weinstein, Charles Wowkanech.
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


New Mexico (5)
The Dem Electors:Tom Atcitty, Rick Blea, Diane Denish, Jeep Gilliland, Mary Gail Gwaltney. GOP electors: Rod Adair, Mirabelle Bolton, Linda Mitchell Davis, Dianna Duran, Marylou Melvin
The GOP Electors: Rod Adair, Meribelle Bolton, Linda Mitchell Davis, Dianne Duran, Marylou Melvin.
On Faithless Electors: "All presidential electors shall cast their ballots in the electoral college for the candidates of the political party which nominated them as presidential electors. Any presidential elector who casts his ballot in violation of the provisions is guilty of a fourth degree felony."
On Absent Electors: "If the full number of electors required by law are not present at such meeting for any reason, those presidential electors present shall, from a list of names nominated by the State chairman of that party, forthwith choose electors from the voters of the State party."


New York (33)
The Dem Electors: Martin Begun, David Cohen, Martin Connor, Daniel Donohue, Herman Farrell Jr., Patrick Halpin, Liberal Party leader Raymond Harding, Denis Hughes, ex-Rep. Thomas Manton, Comptroller H. Carl McCall, Clarence Norman Jr., G. Steven Pigeon, Roberto Ramirez, Michael Schell, Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, Andrew Spano, AG Eliot Spitzer, Leslie Alpert, Susan Arbamowitz, Betty Barnette, Carolee Conklin, Lorraine Cortez Vazquez, Inez Dickens, Cynthia Emmer, Emily Giske, NY Dem Chair Judith Hope, Virginia Kee, Bertha Lewis, Alberta Madonna, Deborah Marciano, Helen Marshall, Shirley O'Connell, Randi Weingarten
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


North Carolina (14)
The GOP Electors: Steve Rader of Washington, ex-NC GOP Chair Sam Currin of Raleigh, Mike Gorman of New Bern, Jeff Mixon of Durham, Fran Barnhart of Charlotte, Linda Whitener of Hickory, Dewitt Rhoades of Kernersville, Marshall Hurley of Gibsonville, A. Dial Gray of Whiteville, Tom Dwiggins of Harrisburg, Margaret King of Charlotte, Claude Billings of Wilkesboro, Joe Morgan of Marshall, Fred Steen of Landis, Robert Rector of Louisburg, Barbara Holt of Elon College
On Faithless Electors: "Refusal or failure to vote for the candidates of the political party which nominated such elector shall constitute a resignation from the office of elector, his vote shall not be recorded, and the remaining electors shall forthwith fill such vacancy."
On Absent Electors: "The first and second alternates nominated ... shall fill the first two vacancies. If they are absent, or there are more than two vacancies, those present at the required meeting shall forthwith elect from the citizens of the State a sufficient number of persons to fill the deficiency. ... Any presidential elector having previously signified his consent to serve as such, who fails to attend ... (except in case of sickness or other unavoidable accident) shall forfeit and pay to the State $500."


North Dakota (3)
The GOP Electors: Gov. Ed Schafer, LG Rosemarie Myrdal, ex-state Sen. Bryce Streibel.
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "[Electors] must fill any vacancy in the office of elector by ballot by a plurality of votes."


Ohio (21)
The GOP Electors: County GOP Chair Danny Hamilton of Dayton, businessman John Chiappetta of Richmond Heights, '88 elector/ex-Nixon aide John Chester Sr. of Columbus, OH House Speaker Jo Ann Davidson of Reynoldsburg, Morrow Co. GOP Chair Pauline Riel of Marengo, Hamilton Co. GOP Club pres.-elect Pakkir Rajagopol of Cincinnati, GOP activist Deborah Burstian-Donbraye of Warrensville Heights, Medina Co. GOP Chair Don Simmons of Sharon Center, ex-W. Bush business partner Mercer Reynolds of Cincinnati, businessman Pat Hennessey of Zanesville, ex-Gov. Taft aide Donna Harter of New Madison, GOP activist Doug Miller of Latham, businessman Alan Bedol of Lakewood, Summit Co. GOP Chair Alex Arshinkoff of Akron, businessman John McConnell of Worthington, businessman W.R. Tim Timken Jr. of Canton, businessman Clarence Smith of Youngstown, Shirley Sadler of Lebanon, Leanna Coil of Hicksville, Paul Hoag of Holland and Greene Co. GOP Chair Faye Sparks of Beavercreek
On Faithless Electors: "A presidential elector ... shall ... cast his electoral vote for the nominees for President and Vice President of the political party which certified him to the Secretary of State as a presidential elector."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Oklahoma (8)
The GOP Electors: Donald O'Nesky of Tulsa, Bob McDowell of Monkey Island, James Cruson of Kingston, Steve Byas of Norman, Tom Prince of Edmond, Kristal Markowitz of Spencer, Paul Hollrah of Locust Grove, George Wiland of Tulsa
On Faithless Electors: "Electors committed to a candidate or the candidate of a party must take an oath to cast their ballots for the candidates on whose slate they run."
On Absent Electors: "Electors are to meet ... to perform such duties as required by law, including filling any vacancy in the office of electors."


Oregon (7)
The Dem Electors: Jim Edmunson of Eugene, Wayne Kinney of LaGrande, Judy Sugnet of Salem, Louise Poteet of Roseburg, Maria Smithson of Wilsonville, Moshe Lenske of Portland, Dorothy MacKay of Portland.
On Faithless Electors: "Each elector shall at the time of his selection sign a pledge that, if elected, he will vote in the Electoral College for the candidates of his party for President and Vice President."
On Absent Electors: "If there is any vacancy ... the electors present immediately shall fill it by plurality of voice votes."


Pennsylvania (23)
The Dem Electors: Kathy Black of Philadelphia, Richard Bloomingdale of Dauphin, Auditor General Robert Casey of Lackawanna, William DeWeese of Greene, Nelson Diaz of Philadelphia, William George of Cumberland, Ken Jarin of Bucks, James Johnston of Cumberland, Edward Keller of Dauphin, Alan Kessler of Montgomery, Lou Lignelli of Washington, Robert Mellow of Lackawanna, Pittsburgh Mayor Tom Murphy of Allegheny, Robert O'Connor of Allegheny, Lazar Palnick of Allegheny, Stephen Reed of Dauphin, State Rep. T.J. Rooney of Northampton, Joyce Savocchio of Erie, Philly Mayor John Street of Philadelphia, Christine Tartaglione of Philadelphia, Marian Tasco of Philadelphia, Sala Udin of Allegheny, Anna Verna of Philadelphia
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "Vacancies are filled by voice vote of those electors present."


Rhode Island (4)
The Dem Electors: Ex-RI Dem Chair Mark Weiner of East Greenwich, Susan Weiner of East Greenwich, Joyce Caprio of Narragansett, Donald Sweitzer of Warwick
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "Vacancies are filled by plurality vote of those present."


South Carolina (8)
The GOP Electors: Cyndi Costa of Charleston, orthodontist Buddy Witherspoon of Lexington, Bill Prince of Horry, Tom McClean of Lexington, Dan Richardson of Greenwood, Dough Wavle of Greenville, Danny Faulkner of Lancaster, Cecil Windham of Clarendon
On Faithless Electors: "Any registered elector has the right to institute an action to enforce the requirement of the statute that the elector shall vote as declared and there are criminal sanctions. A State party executive committee may release electors pledged to support the candidate of their party when, in the judgment of the committee, it would not be in the best interest of the State for the elector to cast his ballot for such a candidate."
On Absent Electors: "The presidential electors shall ... fill any vacancies by a plurality."


South Dakota (3)
The GOP Electors: Gov. William Janklow of Pierre, LG Carole Hillard of Pierre, Joel Rosenthal of Souix Falls
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Tennessee (11)
The GOP Electors: Lana Bowman Ball of Jonesborough, Raja Jubran of Knoxville, Jim Henry of Kingston, ex-Senate Maj. Leader Howard Baker of Huntsville, ex-Gov. Winfield Dunn of Nashville, WH '96 TN exec dir Patti Saliba of Murfreesboro, Nancy Cunningham of Memphis, Jimmy Exum of Jackson, Mamon Wright of Memphis, ex-Sec/Educ Lamar Alexander of Nashville and Anie Kent of Memphis
On Faithless Electors: "If the candidates of the party which nominated the electors are alive, they shall cast their ballots for them. If either the presidential candidate or both the presidential and vice presidential candidates are dead, they may vote as they see fit."
On Absent Electors: "If any elector fails to appear ... those electors present fill the vacancy."


Texas (32)
The GOP Electors: Ernie Angelo of Midland, James Batsell of Brownsville, Carmen Castillo of Houston, Mary Ceverha of Dallas, Ken Clark of League City, Hally Clements of Victoria, Mary Cowart of Pasadena, Rep.-elect John Culberson of Houston, Sue Daniel of Dallas, Michael Dugas of Pasadena, Chuck Jones of Amarillo, William Juett of Amarillo, Cruz Hernandez of Burleson, Jim Hamlin of Duncanville, Betty Hines of Texarkana, Neal Katz and Plano, Betsy Lake of Houston, Adair Margo of El Paso, Loyce McCarter of La Vernia, Joseph Oniell of Midland, Michael Paddie of Village Mills, Howard Pebley of McAllen, Robert Peden of Hondo, Helen Quiram of Waco, James Randall of Austin, Clyde Moody Siebman of Pottsboro, Stan Stanart of Spring, Henry Teich Jr. of Cresson, Randall Tye of Gun Barrel City, James Walker of San Antonio, Tom Ward Jr. of Granbury, Gayle West of Houston
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: "If an elector is absent at the time for convening the meeting, the electors may declare the elector position vacant by a majority vote of those present at the meeting."


Utah (5)
The GOP Electors: Gov. Michael Leavitt of Salt Lake City, LG Olene Walker of Salt Lake City, Lewis Billings of Provo, Arlene Ellis of Salt Lake City, Ron Fox of North Salt Lake
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Vermont (3)
The Dem Electors: Violet Coffin of Strafford, A. Jeffry Taylor of Clarendon, Alan Weiss of Northfield.
On Faithless Electors: "The electors must vote for the candidates for President and Vice President who received the greatest number of votes at the general election."
On Absent Electors: "The other electors present shall at once fill such vacancy viva voice and by a plurality of votes."


Virginia (13)
The GOP Electors: Parker Bena of Virginia Beach, Vincent Callahan of McLean, Patsy Drain of Fairfax, Gloria Taylor Fisher of Alexandria, Ann Garrett of Virginia Beach, Philip Infantino of Chesapeake, Edith Light of Lynchburg, Luther Miller of Rileyville, Frances Sadler of Ashland, Evans Thomas of Appomattox, George Thomas Jr. of Richmond, Gary Waddell of Pennington Gap, Peyton White of Newport News
On Faithless Electors: "The electors selected by the state conventions by any political party shall be expected to vote in the Electoral College for the nominees of any national convention to which the said convention elects delegates."
On Absent Electors: n/a


Washington (11)
The Dem Electors: Rachel Lake of Lake Forest Park, Debbie Aldrich of Bow, Paul Steinberg of Vancouver, Carol Sue Perkins of Pasco, Tim Hattenburg of Spokane, Debbie Regala of Tacoma, Vic Battson of Seattle, retored aircraft inspector Carl Schwartz of Seattle, Nancy McGinnis of Tacoma, Jim Frush of Bainbridge Island, Charlotte Coker of Spokane
On Faithless Electors: "Each political party is to require a pledge from those nominated for presidential elector that they will vote for the nominees of the party. Failure to vote for the nominees of the party subjects an elector to a $1,000 fine."
On Absent Electors: "Electors are ... fill any vacancy by plurality of voice votes and perform the duties required of them by the Constitution and laws of the United States."


West Virginia (5)
The GOP Electors: James Harless of Gilbert, John McCurcheon of Lewisburg, homemaker Jo Slaughter of Charleston, state Rep. Charles Trump of Berkley Springs, Flip West of Wheeling
On Faithless Electors: n/a
On Absent Electors: n/a


Wisconsin (11)
The Dem Electors: Ruth Miner-Kessel, Tim Sullivan, Alice Clausing, Pedro Colon, Reynolds Honold, Joan Kaeding, Charlie Wolden, Mark McQuate, Angela Sutkiewicz, Paulette Copeland, Christine Sinicki
On Faithless Electors: "The presidential electors ... shall vote by ballot for that person for President and that person for Vice President who are, respectively, the candidates of the political party which nominated them."
On Absent Electors: "If there is a vacancy ... the electors present shall immediately proceed to fill by ballot, by a plurality of votes, the electoral college vacancy."


Wyoming (3)
The GOP Electors: Judy Catchpole of Cheyenne, Gale Geringer of Cheyenne, John Patton of Sheridan
On Faithless Electors: "All electors shall vote for the candidates ... receiving the highest number of votes in the Wyoming general election."
On Absent Electors: n/a


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