Early American History Exam # 4 - Ziegler
Early American History Exam # 4 - Ziegler


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Early American History Exam # 4 Multiple Choice Quiz EXAM # 4 1 The reform movements of the first half of the nineteenth century reflected which of the following impulses?
A) an optimistic faith in human nature
B) a rational view of man and his ability
C) a desire for control and order
D) a desire to end slavery
E) both an optimistic faith in human nature, and a desire for control and order

2 Series of violent political confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 involving anti-slavery "Free-Staters"
and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian", or "southern" elements. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether this state
would allow or outlaw slavery, and thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for "popular sovereignty"—that is, the decision about slavery was to be made by the settlers (rather than outsiders).
It would be decided by votes—or more exactly which side had more votes counted by officials. Pro-slavery forces said every settler had the right to bring his own property,
including slaves, into the territory. Anti-slavery "free soil" forces said the rich slaveholders would buy up all the good farmland
and work it with black slaves, leaving little or no opportunity for non-slaveholders. As such, it was a conflict between anti-slavery forces in the North and pro-slavery forces
from the South over the issue of slavery in the United States, and its violence indicated that compromise was unlikely, and thus it presaged the Civil War.
A) Harriet Beecher Stowe
B)Beecher’s Bibles
C)Harpers Ferry
D)Bleeding Kansas
E)Lecompton Constitution

3 Kansas voters, having the opportunity to vote on this pro-slavery constitution in the referendum,
overwhelmingly rejected it by a vote of 10,226 to 138. And in Washington, it was defeated by the federal House of Representatives in 1858.
Though soundly defeated, debate over the proposed constitution had ripped apart the Democratic party.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state in 1861.
A)Harriet Beecher Stowe
B)Beecher’s Bibles
C)Harpers Ferry
D)Bleeding Kansas
E)Lecompton Constitution

4 Transcendentalists believed that
A) "understanding" was more important than "reason."
B) man should repress instinct and strive for externally imposed learning.
C) each individual should strive to "transcend" the limits of intellect and allow emotions to create an "original relation to the universe."
D) individuals should avoid anything that would bring one too close to the natural world.
E) "reason" was more important than "understanding."

5 In his essay "Resistance to Civil Government," Henry David Thoreau claimed an individual should
A) not pay poll taxes.
B) refuse to obey unjust laws.
C) live in isolation and as simply as possible.
D) reject the artificial constraints of government.
E) embrace an excessive interest in material comforts.

6 American utopians
A) attracted thousands of followers during the antebellum period.
B) had a consistent supporter in Nathaniel Hawthorne.
C) operated primarily in the South.
D) struggled to meet both individual needs and the demands of the communal society.
E) never developed a large following.

7 The Oneida Community
A) advocated "free love."
B) called for celibacy and attracted members for conversion.
C) believed it liberated women from the demands of male "lust" and from traditional bonds of family.
D) was widely accepted and had almost no critics.
E) sought to expand parental control over children.

8 Like other experiments in social organization of this era, Mormonism reflected
A) a strong antislavery bias.
B) a celebration of individual liberty.
C) a desire to improve the status of women.
D) a strong desire to isolate believers from general society.
E) a belief in human perfectibility.

9 The name given to the breech loading Sharps rifles that were supplied to the anti-slavery immigrants in Kansas.
A) Harriet Beecher Stowe
B)Beecher’s Bibles
C)Harpers Ferry
D)Bleeding Kansas
E)Lecompton Constitution

10 Effort by armed abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal in Virginia.
Brown's party of 22 was defeated by a company of U.S. Marines, led by First Lieutenant Israel Greene.
Colonel Robert E. Lee was in overall command of the operation to retake the arsenal.
John Brown had originally asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass,
both of whom he had met in his transformative years as an abolitionist in Springfield, Massachusetts, to join him in his raid,
but Tubman was prevented by illness, and Douglass declined, as he believed Brown's plan would fail.
A) Harriet Beecher Stowe
B)Beecher’s Bibles
C)Harpers Ferry
D)Bleeding Kansas
E)Lecompton Constitution

11 The emphasis on educational reform was consistent with the spirit of the age because it
A) focused on teaching children the values of order and discipline.
B) stressed educational equality.
C) focused on creating workers with pragmatic not critical thinking skills.
D) stressed the importance of community.
E) emphasized the development of individual talent.

12 The creation of asylums
A) was only for the mentally ill.
B) was only for criminals.
C) attempted to rehabilitate "unfit" people into useful citizens.
D) was an attempt to curb the abuses of the old methods of dealing with the poor and the ill.
E) was only for the mentally ill and criminals.

13 American abolitionist and author, best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), which depicts
the harsh conditions for enslaved African Americans. The book reached millions as a novel and play,
and became influential in the United States and Great Britain, energizing anti-slavery forces in the American North,
while provoking widespread anger in the South.
A) Harriet Beecher Stowe
B)Beecher’s Bibles
C)Harpers Ferry
D)Bleeding Kansas
E)Lecompton Constitution

14 Educational reformers intended public schools to perform all of the following roles EXCEPT
A) to extend and protect democracy.
B) to raise questions and criticisms of authority.
C) to expand individual opportunities.
D) to inculcate values of thrift, order, discipline, and punctuality.
E) to establish social order.

15 After 1830, which of the following reform movements began to overshadow the others?
A) antislavery
B) women's rights
C) temperance
D) education
E) rehabilitation

16 The most noted black abolitionist of the day was
A) Ralph Waldo Emerson.
B) William Lloyd Garrison.
C) Frederick Douglass.
D) Joseph Smith.
E) Benjamin Lundy.

17 Opponents of abolitionism in the North believed
A) abolitionists were dangerous radicals.
B) the movement would lead to a war between the North and South.
C) the movement would lead to a great influx of free blacks into the North.
D) All these answers are correct.
E) None of these answers is correct.

18 Immediate abolition gradually accomplished was the slogan of
A) moderate antislavery forces.
B) Garrison and his followers.
C) Southern antislavery planters.
D) black abolitionists.
E) the free soilers.

19 Personal liberty laws
A) allowed masters to claim slaves who ran away to the North.
B) freed slaves who escaped to states in the Old Northwest.
C) forbade state officials to assist in the capture and return of runaways.
D) outlawed the interstate slave trade.
E) allowed slaves to purchase their freedom.

20 The movement that advocated keeping slavery out of the territories was known as the
A) personal liberty movement.
B) free-soil movement.
C) John Brown Brigade.
D) Garrison solution.
E) the Missouri Compromise.

21 Throughout the North, black Americans
A) enjoyed full access to education and most career opportunities.
B) voted and held government jobs proportionate to their numbers.
C) defended their freedom and responded eagerly to the cause of abolitionism.
D) earned a decent standard of living.
E) were more violent in their abolitionist rhetoric than Garrison.

22 The creation of "asylums" for social deviants was an effort to:
A) punish the inmates.
B) get the deviants out of society.
C) reform and rehabilitate the inmates.
D) cut down the cost of crime and punishment.
E) All these answers are correct.

23 The settlement of the western territories
A) united the North and South with a common feeling of nationalism.
B) divided the North and the South over the issue of slavery in the territories.
C) eliminated the need for debate over the issue of slavery.
D) facilitated effective compromises over the increasingly divisive issue of slavery.
E) created more slave states than free states.

24 By the end of the 1840s, the territory of the United States included
A) all of the nation's current territory.
B) the entire territory of the current continental United States.
C) nearly the entire territory of the current continental United States.
D) the entire continental United States east of the Rockies.
E) included the Gadsden Purchase.

25 Laws proposed by Lincoln that gave an applicant ownership of land at no cost. In all, more than 270
million acres of public land, or nearly 10% of the total area of the U.S., was given away free to 1.6 million settlers;
most of them west of the Mississippi River, and opened the West to settlement, helping turn what was said to be desert into rich farm land.
A)Ironclads
B)Screw propeller
C)Steam boats
D)Homestead acts
E)Copperheads

26 Lincoln promoted use of these in steam vessels because their operation underwater increased efficiency.
A)Ironclads
B)Screw propeller
C)Steam boats
D)Homestead act
E)Copperheads

27 Democrats in the North who supported slavery.
A)Ironclads
B)Screw propeller
C)Steam boats
D)Homestead act
E)Copperheads

28 Lincoln changed the Navy to be almost exclusively this type of vessel power
A)Ironclads
B)Screw propeller
C)Steam boats
D)Homestead act
E)Copperheads

29 Steam-propelled warships protected by iron or steel armor plates which Lincoln promoted during Civil War.
They developed as a result of the vulnerability of wooden warships to explosive or incendiary shells.
The South had them too, but their war fighting capabilities won control of the Tennessee River for the North.
A)Ironclads
B)Screw propeller
C)Steam boats
D)Homestead act
E)Copperheads

30 Immigrants going west on the great overland trails faced the least danger from
A) hostile Indians.
B) diseases.
C) mountain and desert terrain.
D) hunger.
E) brutal winter weather.

31 Deseret
A)Book of Mormon
B)Proposed Morman state in 1849 before Utah
C)one of world’s largest ranches, located in central Florida
D)honeybee
E)all of these are correct

32 By combining the Oregon and the Texas issue in 1844, Democrats hoped to
A) start a war with Mexico and Great Britain.
B) attract John Tyler to the Democratic Party.
C) divert attention from the slavery issue.
D) get Van Buren to support Polk.
E) appeal to both Northern and Southern expansionists.

33 Travelers on the Overland Trail
A) experienced significantly higher death rates than the general population.
B) experienced constant and deadly attacks by Indian tribes along the trail.
C) was a highly individualized experience.
D) often migrated as families that practiced traditional gender divisions of labor.
E) were often loners who preferred a vagabond lifestyle.

34 The war with Mexico was criticized
A) by Southerners who believed Polk deliberately maneuvered the country into the conflict on behalf of Northern interests.
B) by Northerners who believed it was part of a slaveholders' plot to bring in more slave states.
C) by businessmen who believed it would hurt commerce with England and Mexico.
D) by Democrats from all sections of the nation.
E) by Texas Mexicans who favored reunification with Mexico.

35 The Wilmot Proviso
A) went into law without the president's signature.
B) was supported by Southern militants.
C) was a compromise acceptable to the South and the North but not the West.
D) drew very little attention outside of Congress.
E) passed the House by not the Senate.

36 The Compromise of 1850 included all of the following EXCEPT
A) California would come in as a free state.
B) in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico, territorial governments would be formed without restrictions on slavery.
C) the national government would not pay the Texas debt.
D) the slave trade, but not slavery, would be abolished in the District of Columbia.
E) None of these answers is correct.
37 The Oregon boundary dispute or the Oregon Question was a controversy over the political division of
the Pacific Northwest of North America between several nations that had competing territorial and
commercial aspirations over the region. Expansionist competition into the region began in the 18th
century, with participants including the Russian Empire, the United Kingdom, Spain and the United
States. By the 1820s, both the Russians, through the Russo-American Treaty of 1824 and the Russo-
British Treaty of 1825, and the Spanish, by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, formally withdrew their
territorial claims in the region. Through these treaties the British and Americans gained residual
territorial claims in the disputed area. The remaining portion of the North American Pacific coast
contested by the United Kingdom and the United States was defined as the following: west of
the
Continental Divide of the Americas, north of Alta California at 42nd parallel north, and
south of Russian America; typically this region was referred to by the British as the Columbia
District and the Oregon Country by the Americans.
A)Tippecanoe and Tyler too
B)54-40 or Fight
C)No Taxation without Representation
D)The British are Coming
E)Don’t Fire til You See the Whites of their Eyes

38 Case which arose out of the American Civil War (1861–1865). It was a test of the authority of the
President to suspend "the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus" under the Constitution's
Suspension Clause, when Congress was in recess and therefore unavailable to do so itself. More
generally, the case raised questions about the ability of the executive branch to decline
enforcement of orders from the judicial branch when the executive believes them to be erroneous
and harmful to its own legal powers. The person at the center of the case was a prominent
Marylander from Baltimore County, who had been arrested in his rural estate. He remained
inaccessible to the judiciary and to civilian legal authorities generally, held prisoner in Fort McHenry in
Baltimore harbor. U.S. Supreme Court head, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (1777–1864, served
1836–1864), appointed by seventh President Andrew Jackson, ruled that the authority to suspend
habeas corpus lay exclusively only with the Congress of the United States. The Executive Branch,
including the United States Army, under the authority of the President of the United States as
Commander-in-Chief, did not comply with this Taney opinion. Taney filed his decision with the United
States Circuit Court for the District of Maryland, but it is unclear if Taney's decision was a
circuit court decision. One view, based in part on Taney's handwritten copy of this decision, is that
Taney heard the habeas action under special authority granted to federal judges by Section 14 of
the Judiciary Act of 1789.
A)Rifling
B)Breach loading
C)Ex parte Merryman
D)Ex parte Milligan
E)Ogden Utah
39 Closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, Utah, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869.
A)Rifling
B)Breach loading
C)Ex parte Merryman
D)Ex parte Milligan
E)Ogden Utah
40 Firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel, which Lincoln acted to convert military arms to function as. A)Rifling
B)Breach loading
C)Ex parte Merryman
D)Ex parte Milligan
E)Ogden Utah
41 U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian
courts are still operating is unconstitutional. In this particular case the Court was unwilling to give
President Abraham Lincoln's administration the power of military commission jurisdiction, part of
the administration's controversial plan to deal with Union dissenters during the American Civil War.
Justice David Davis, who delivered the majority opinion, stated that "martial rule can never exist
when the courts are open" and confined martial law to areas of "military operations, where war
really prevails," and when it was a necessity to provide a substitute for a civil authority that had
been overthrown. Chief Justice Chase and three associate justices filed a separate opinion
concurring with the majority in the judgement, but asserted that Congress had the power to authorize a
military commission, although it had not done so in this case. The landmark case stemmed from a
trial by a military commission of the person named in the case, Stephen Horsey, William A. Bowles,
and Andrew Humphreys that convened at Indianapolis on October 21, 1864. The charges against
the men included, among others, conspiracy against the U.S. government, offering aid and comfort
to the Confederates, and inciting rebellion
A)Rifling
B)Breach loading
C)Ex parte Merryman
D)Ex parte Milligan
E)Ogden Utah
42 The helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the
purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis
during shooting. Ordered by Lincoln for all Union long guns, this spin serves to gyroscopically
stabilize the projectile by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability
and accuracy.
A)Rifling
B)Breach loading
C)Ex parte Merryman
D)Ex parte Milligan
E)Ogden Utah
43 The new leaders emerging in Congress after the Compromise of 1850 were
A) less able politicians.
B) more concerned with narrow interest of self-promotion.
C) as skilled at compromise as the older leaders.
D) interested in broad national issues.
E) less pragmatic than their predecessors.

44 The "Young America" movement
A) was a movement to garner support for abolition among the youth of America.
B) was a movement to garner support for slavery among the youth of America.
C) was intended to divert young Americans' interests toward nationalism and expansion and away from
the "transitory" issue of slavery. D) was part of President Franklin Pierce's efforts to further expand the nation's territories to pacify the slavery interests.
E) was an unsuccessful diplomatic attempt to acquire Cuba.

45 The question of statehood for Kansas and Nebraska became a critical issue because
A) of the rivalry between Chicago and St. Louis as the location of the eastern terminus.
B) of Southern fear that a transcontinental railroad would be built through them.

C) of Northern concern over new wheat states and depressed grain prices.
D) many believed that they could never support a population sufficient to justify statehood.
E) of the question of whether they would be slave or free states.

46 Northerners who accepted the concepts of "free soil" and "free labor" believed
A) slavery was dangerous not because of what it did to blacks but because of what it did to whites.
B) slavery opened the door to economic opportunity for whites.
C) slavery was what made the South a glorious civilization and one that should be admired.
D) slave labor would work in Northern factories and should be allowed to expand.
E) slavery closed the door to economic opportunity for whites.

47 Through personal liberty laws, Northern states attempted to
A) use state authority to interfere with the deportation of fugitive slaves.
B) force industries to recognize labor unions.
C) allow women to own property.
D) extend the right to vote to all tax-paying adults.
E) legalize the "underground railroad."

48 Southerners who believed in the "positive-good" theory argued
A) slavery was good for blacks.
B) slavery should be maintained, even though it was not profitable for whites.
C) Northern factory workers were better off than slaves, but they deserved to be because they were white.
D) blacks were not biologically inferior, they just needed time to catch up culturally.
E) slavery enhanced the over-all American economy.

49 American efforts to buy or seize Cuba failed because
A) international pressure was put on President Pierce.
B) there was little nationalism in the nation by the 1850s.
C) antislavery forces in the North opposed it.
D) it was believed we had more territory than we could use.
E) established Southern planters feared Cuban competition.

50 The Dred Scott decision
A) affirmed Missouri law.
B) was a victory for the antislavery movement.
C) declared Scott a free man.
D) outlawed the interstate slave trade.
E) affirmed the South's argument that the Constitution guaranteed the existence of slavery.

51 Abraham Lincoln
A) believed slavery was morally wrong but was not an abolitionist.
B) had been a Democrat before he became a Republican.
C) believed the expansion of slavery would hurt the spread of free labor. D) tried to avoid the slavery issue in his debates with Douglas.
E) believed slavery was morally wrong but was not an abolitionist,
and had been a Democrat before he became a Republican.

52 Prominent United States Army general during the American Civil War and Commanding General at the conclusion of that war. He was elected as the 18th President of the United States in 1868, serving from 1869 to 1877 A)Samuel Colt
B)Samuel Chase
C)Ulysses S. Grant
D)Sherman’s March
E)George McClellan

53 American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician who was appointed to the rank of major general commanding the Army of the Potomac in the Eastern Theater and served a brief period (November 1861 to March 1862) as general-in-chief of the United States Army / Union Army. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points, and lost Lincoln’s trust. He ran against Lincoln as Democrat candidate in 1864. A)Samuel Colt
B)Samuel Chase
C)Ulysses S. Grant
D)Sherman’s March
E)George McClellan

54 Lincoln appointed him to serve as Secretary of the Treasury
Lincoln appointed him to fill the Supreme Court vacancy that arose following Chief Justice Roger Taney's death.
A)Samuel Colt
B)Samuel Chase
C)Ulysses S. Grant
D)Sherman’s March
E)George McClellan

55 Formally known as the Savannah Campaign, was a military campaign of the American Civil War
conducted through Georgia from November 15 to December 21, 1864 by the Union Army which began
with Union troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah
on December 21 and destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property
and disrupted the Confederacy's economy and its transportation networks. The operation broke the back of the Confederacy and helped lead to its eventual surrender.
A)Samuel Colt
B)Samuel Chase
C)Ulysses S. Grant
D)Sherman’s March
E)George McClellan

56 American inventor, industrialist, businessman, and hunter who made the mass production of the
multiple shot revolver that was vital in the Civil War and western expansion commercially viable.
A)Samuel Colt
B)Samuel Chase
C)Ulysses S. Grant
D)Sherman’s March
E)George McClellan

57 Which of the following battles was fought in the western theatre?
A) Gettysburg
B) Chancellorsville
C) Shiloh
D) Antietam
E) Kennesaw Mountain

58 The first seven Southern states that seceded were
A) in the lower South.
B) the states where the largest concentration of slaves were located.
C) the home of the most outspoken "fire eaters."
D) not possessed of the military strength to fight a war.
E) All these answers are correct.

59 Which of the following stands did President Buchanan take after the first state seceded?
A) No state has the right to secede from the Union.
B) The federal government has no authority to stop a state from seceding from the nation.
C) Federal troops should be called out to stop secession.
D) Secession was a legal act.
E) No state has the right to secede from the Union; however, the federal government does not have
the authority to stop a state from seceding from the nation.

60 At Fort Sumter,
A) President Lincoln resupplied the federal troops in time to avoid an armed conflict.
B) Major Anderson managed to withstand the bombardment of the Confederates and keep the Fort in Union hands.
C) the Confederates fired the first shot of the Civil War.
D) the Union Army fired the first shots of the war.
E) Major Anderson surrendered right after the first shot.

61 Which of the following was true when the Civil War began?
A) All the important material advantages lay with the North.
B) The South had the active support of England.
C) Southern industry was sufficient to conduct a war.
D) The Union was prepared for a long war.
E) The Union had the active support of France.

62 Which of the following was an advantage enjoyed by the South at the outset of the war?
A) It would be fighting, for the most part, a defensive war.
B) Most of the white population of the South supported the war.
C) Northern opinion on the war was divided.
D) The South had better military commanders.
E) All these answers are correct.

63 The New York City draft riots
A) occurred when Irish strikebreakers were attacked by New York longshoremen.
B) led to the deaths of 1000 people.
C) included lynchings of a number of African Americans.
D) ended the use of conscription as a means of gaining new soldiers for the Union army.
E) were in protest of the high $300.00 draft avoidance fee.

64 In which of the following acts was Lincoln able "ignore" the Constitution because we were at war?
A) sending troops into battle without asking for a declaration of war
B) increasing the size of the regular army
C) putting diplomatic pressure on England not to recognize the Confederacy
D) unilaterally proclaiming a naval blockade of the South
E) suspending the writ of habeas corpus

65 During the Civil War, Northern women
A) did not become involved in the conflict.
B) tried to get the men they knew to stay home.
C) entered nursing, a field previously dominated by men.
D) did work at home but made no contribution to the needs of employers for additional labor.
E) organized anti-war protests.

66 The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves
A) in the North as well as the South.
B) in areas of the Confederacy except those already under Union control.
C) and offered compensation to the masters in slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
D) in the South but offered to return them to masters who declared their loyalty to the Union.
E) in Southern areas already under Union control.

67 The Union Army
A) refused to use African-American soldiers in any capacity.
B) refused to use African-American soldiers in combat positions.
C) suffered a higher mortality rate for black soldiers than white soldiers.
D) paid black and white soldiers equally.
E) used black commanders to lead black units.

68 The Confederacy ultimately financed its war effort through
A) an income tax.
B) requisitions from the staples.
C) paper money.
D) tariffs on imported goods.
E) minting gold and silver or "hard money."

69 The most concrete legacy of the Civil War for Southern white women was the
A) recognition that women could do men's work and the opening of more employment opportunities.
B) elevation in status they enjoyed when the slaves were freed.
C) decimation of the male population and the creation of a major sexual imbalance in the region.
D) the loss of status when the slaves were freed.
E) All these answers are correct.

70 In England, which of the following were among those who might have supported the South?
A) unenfranchised classes
B) ruling classes
C) liberals
D) English textile manufacturers
E) unemployed textile workers

71 The first battle of the Civil War was
A) Shiloh.
B) the Seven Days.
C) First Bull Run.
D) Wilson's Creek.
E) Fort Pickens.

72 Sherman's march through Georgia was designed to
A) find supplies for the Union armies in Virginia.
B) free the slaves in central Georgia.
C) get Lincoln reelected.
D) break the will of the Confederacy.
E) cut off Lee's army.

73 King Cotton diplomacy
A) enabled the South to get all the war material it needed from Europe.
B) worked for most of the war.
C) was a failure.
D) worked for the North.
E) enabled the South to get all the war material it needed from Europe and worked for most of the war.

74 The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
A) declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.
B) officially ended slavery.
C) granted "citizenship" to the freedmen.
D) provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining
how many members they would be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.
E) opened up the West to homesteading by African Americans.

75 The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
A) declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.
B) officially ended slavery.
C) granted "citizenship" to the freed men by redefining citizenship for all which led to the nationalization of the Bill of Rights.
D) provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining how many members they could be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.
E) opened up the West to homesteading by African Americans.

76 The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
A) declared that the right to vote could not be denied on account of race.
B) officially ended slavery.
C) granted "citizenship" to the freedmen.
D) provided that states could only count three-fifths (60%) of their black population when determining
how many members they would be given in the U.S. House of Representatives.
E) opened up the West to homesteading by African Americans.

77 Which faction of the Republican Party wanted Reconstruction to punish the former Confederacy,
disenfranchise large numbers of Southern whites, and confiscate the property of leading Confederates?
A) moderates
B) conservatives
C) Redeemers
D) Scalywags
E) Radicals

78 Which best describes Congressional reaction to the former Confederate states that had set up new
governments under Andrew Johnson's "presidential Reconstruction"?
A) They fully accepted all of the states except Georgia and South Carolina, which had elected no blacks to office.
B) They conditionally accepted all of the states pending the results of local and state elections.
C) They refused to seat the senators and representatives from the states and set up a committee to investigate and advise on Reconstruction.
D) They fully accepted all of the states west of the Mississippi River, but required new constitutions in the others.
E) They enacted the Wade-Davis Bill.

79 The "Black Codes" were a set of regulations established by
A) the Congress to protect the rights of the former slaves to own property and to find employment.
B) the U.S. Supreme Court to enforce the provisions of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
C) the Northern states to prevent a massive influx of former slaves from entering their states and seeking homes and jobs.
D) the Southern states to promote white supremacy and to control the economic and social activities of the freed men.
E) the Southern states to promote radical Reconstruction Acts.

80 Which of the following, if any, was NOT a provision of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction enacted in early 1867?
A) dividing the South into military districts administered by military commanders
B) requiring former Confederate states, as a condition of readmission to the Union, to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
C) mandating former Confederate states, as a condition of readmission to the Union, to hold a
constitutional convention and prepare a constitution providing for black male suffrage
D) declaring that each state must present a plan for distributing farm land to, or providing jobs for, the former slaves
E) All these answers are correct.

81 Critics of native Southern whites who joined the Republican Party called them
A) carpetbaggers.
B) whippersnappers.
C) scalawags.
D) white camellias.
E) filibusterers.

82 Which best describes the extent of "Negro rule" in the Southern states during Reconstruction?
A) African Americans played a significant political role in several states but never elected a governor or controlled a state legislature.
B) Some African Americans held local elective offices and a very few were elected to state legislatures
but the numbers were politically inconsequential in every state.
C) In the Deep South states where African Americans constituted a majority of the voters due to white disenfranchisement,
blacks dominated both houses of the state legislatures and controlled state politics as long as federal troops remained in the South.
D) African Americans did not actually hold many offices in any state, but they effectively dominated
local offices in all but Tennessee and Arkansas through alliances with white Republicans.
E) It was significant only in Georgia and Mississippi.

83 What institution was the key point of contact in the agricultural credit system for most Southern
farmers, black and white, in the late nineteenth century?
A) small town banks owned by Northerners
B) large diversified planters
C) finance companies in the larger cities such as Atlanta and Memphis
D) mail order mortgage companies operating out of New York
E) local country-store merchants

84 In the late nineteenth century, the agricultural credit system in the South encouraged farmers
A) to rely heavily on cash crops—especially cotton.
B) to diversify away from cotton toward food grains and livestock.
C) to adopt the use of mechanization on increasingly larger farms.
D) to abandon farming and invest in capital-intensive manufacturing enterprises.
E) to abandon their land and go west.

85 The election of 1868
A) was a landslide for Grant.
B) saw Grant uncertain whether to run as the candidate for the Democrats or Republicans.
C) was narrow because of his opposition to Reconstruction.
D) was free from violence in the South.
E) was narrow because of a low black turnout in the South.

86 Ulysses S. Grant's election as president was largely a result of his being
A) governor of New York during the postwar economic boom.
B) a triumphant commanding general of the Union army.
C) the popular administrator of the Freedmen's Bureau.
D) a flamboyant cavalry officer in the western Indian wars.
E) incorruptible.

87 Which of the following, if any, was NOT associated with the "Compromise of 1877"?
A) removal of the last federal troops from the South
B) increased federal aid for railroads and other internal improvements
C) appointment of a Southerner to the cabinet
D) making Rutherford B. Hayes president
E) All these answers are correct.

88 Which, of the following is NOT cited by the text as a reason that Reconstruction failed to accomplish
more to promote racial equality in the United States?
A) fear that harsh action might lead to resumed military action by the Southern states, even though
they had been defeated. B) attachment to a states' rights view of the Constitution, even for the rebel states.
C) deep respect for private property rights, even for leading Confederates.
D) belief in black inferiority by many whites, even Northern liberals.
E) Northern complacency brought about by the adoption of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution.

89 The "solid" South refers to the
A) work ethic values of Southern whites.
B) courage of Confederate soldiers during the war despite being outnumbered.
C) steady returns that Northern bankers could expect from investment in cotton.
D) the fact that the Democratic Party could count on the votes of the Southern states before and after Reconstruction.
E) consistent and uniform opposition of whites to black progress.

90 In most states, the "Redeemers" or "Bourbons" were typically composed of
A) a newly emerging class of merchants, industrialists, railroad developers, and financiers.
B) essentially the same old planter elite that had dominated antebellum politics.
C) a coalition of poor, working-class whites and blacks.
D) white farmers who owned small to medium farms.
E) Republicans and Democrats who favored the ideal of equal rights for all.

91 In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court established the general principle that
A) states could not prevent blacks from voting just because their grandparents had been slaves.
B) states could require separate accommodations on trains, in schools, and the like, for blacks and
whites as long as the accommodations were equal.
C) Congress could take away a state's seats in the U.S. House of Representatives if the state refused to
allow blacks to vote in Congressional elections.
D) local governments could use zoning and building codes to enforce racial segregation by neighborhood.
E) states could use poll taxes and literacy tests to establish voting qualifications.

92 "Jim Crow" is a nickname for
A) white Southerners who used violence or intimidation to restrict black activities.
B) black people who curried favor with whites by acting excessively polite and deferential.
C) the whole system of laws and customs that kept the races separate in schools, public buildings,
houses, jobs, theaters and the like.
D) black people who pretended to be friendly toward whites but who secretly undermined white interests.
E) the African-American culture of dance, music, food, and religion that grew up after slavery.

93 Successful, enterprising black (West Indian) businessman in pre-Civil War California
A)Frederick Douglass
B)William Leidesdorff
C)Franco E. W. Harper
D) Booker T. Washington

94 Laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War that had the intent and the effect of restricting
African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
A)Freedmen’s Bureau
B)John Wilkes Booth
C)Black Codes
D)Tenure of Office Act
E)Edward Stanton

95 United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the
President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
The law was enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson and was used In his impreachment.
A)Freedmen’s Bureau
B)John Wilkes Booth
C)Black Codes
D)Tenure of Office Act
E)Edward Stanton

96 Pro-slavery Democrat actor and Southern sympathizer who shot and killed President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 at Ford’s Theater in Washington DC.
A)Freedmen’s Bureau
B)John Wilkes Booth
C)Black Codes
D)Tenure of Office Act
E)Edward Stanton

97 Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War who opposed Lincoln’s ‘lenient’ Reconstruction policies.
A)Freedmen’s Bureau
B)John Wilkes Booth
C)Black Codes
D)Tenure of Office Act
E)Edward Stanton

98 Initiated by President Abraham Lincoln it was an agency of the United States Department of War to
"direct such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and
temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children."
A)Freedmen’s Bureau
B)John Wilkes Booth
C)Black Codes
D)Tenure of Office Act
E)Edward Stanton

99 Concept in the United States for agrarian redistributive reform for former enslaved African American
farmers, following disruptions to the institution of slavery provoked by the American Civil War
A)Jonathan Gibbs
B)Henry Ossina Flipper
C)Ten Percent Plan
D)Forty Acres and a Mule

100 Black Florida Secretary of State during Reconstruction
A)Jonathan Gibbs
B)Henry Ossina Flipper
C)Ten Percent Plan
D)Forty Acres and a Mule

101 In 1877, he was first black cadet to graduate from West Pointe
A)Jonathan Gibbs
B)Henry Ossina Flipper
C)Ten Percent Plan
D)Forty Acres and a Mule

102 Lincoln’s blueprint for Reconstruction included this which specified that a southern state could be
readmitted into the Union once enough of its voters (from the voter rolls for the election of 1860)
swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
A)Jonathan Gibbs
B)Henry Ossina Flipper
C)Ten Percent Plan
D)Forty Acres and a Mule

103 After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement
in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery
writings and activities in the Republican Party.
A)Frederick Douglass
B)William Leidesdorff
C)Franco E. W. Harper
D) Booker T. Washington

104 Fee charged in Southern states to prevent poor black sharecroppers from registering to vote
A)Sharecropping
B)Poll tax
C)Literacy test
D)Grandfather clause
E)Chinese exclusion

105 Statute enacted by many American southern states in the wake of Reconstruction that allowed
potential white voters to circumvent literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to
disenfranchise southern blacks by blocking those from voting whose ancestor could not have.
A)Sharecropping
B)Poll tax
C)Literacy test
D)Grandfather clause
E)Chinese exclusion

106 IN 1882, It prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers
A)Sharecropping
B)Poll tax
C)Literacy test
D)Grandfather clause
E)Chinese exclusion

107 Form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land, used to virtually re-enslave blacks after Reconstruction.
A)Sharecropping
B)Poll tax
C)Literacy test
D)Grandfather clause
E)Chinese exclusion

108 Administered by Southern governments between the 1850s and 1960s and used to disenfranchise African Americans and others.
A)Sharecropping
B)Poll tax
C)Literacy test
D)Grandfather clause
E)Chinese exclusion

109 Beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. it migrated into the United States from Mexico in
the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the
industry and the people working in the American South.
A)Waving the Bloody Shirt
B)Boll Weevils
C)Frances Harper
D)Booker T Washington

110 American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915,
he was the dominant leader in the African-American community. From the last generation of black American leaders
born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants.
They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws
enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th century.
A key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League,
his base was the Tuskegee Institute, a historically black college in Alabama.
He called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, and mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks,
church leaders, and white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community's
economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling.
A)Waving the Bloody Shirt
B)Boll Weevils
C)Frances Harper
D)Booker T Washington

111 Phrase used by Republicans to ridicule opposing Democrat politicians blaming them for the Civil
War with emotional calls to avenge the blood of the northern soldiers that died in the Civil War.
A)Waving the Bloody Shirt
B)Boll Weevils
C)Frances Harper
D)Booker T Washington

112 Born as a free woman during a time of slavery in the United States of America,
she was born to free African parents in Baltimore, Maryland on September 24, 1825.
In 1828, at the age of three, her mother died and she was sent to be raised by her maternal aunt
who had married Rev. William Watkins. Rev. Watkins was a notable African Methodist Episcopal Church minister,
a civil rights activist and an educator. She received her formal education at the family-operated Watkins Academy for Negro Youth.
After coming of age, she left the Watkins' residence to become a slavery abolitionist,
women suffrage advocate, and writer attributed to a number of great acts.
For example, in 1858, at the age of 33 -- and before the U.S. Civil War --
she refused to ride in the “colored” section of a segregated trolley car in Philadelphia.
Actively involved in the slavery abolitionist movement, she was a staunch advocate for equal rights for Africans
in the young nation actively involved in trafficking of humans as slaves.
A)Waving the Bloody Shirt
B)Boll Weevils
C)Frances Harper
D)Booker T Washington

113 Policies promoted by the Democrat Party
A)Slavery
B)Reservations
C)Sharecropping
D)Segregation
E)all of these

114 These became the Nightriders or Ku Klux Klan in many Southern states to enforce sharecropping,
disenfrachisement, and segregation with the end of Reconstruction.
A)Carpetbaggers
B)Scalawags
C)County democrat clubs
D)Whiskey Ring
E)Tweed Ring
115 Corrupt NYC Tammany Hall Democrat political organization during the 1860s and early 1870s
A)Carpetbaggers
B)Scalawags
C)County democrat clubs
D)Whiskey Ring
E)Tweed Ring
116 Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War
A)Carpetbaggers
B)Scalawags
C)County democrat clubs
D)Whiskey Ring
E)Tweed Ring
117 Scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government
agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. It began in St. Louis but was also organized in
Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Peoria.
A)Carpetbaggers
B)Scalawags
C)County democrat clubs
D)Whiskey Ring
E)Tweed Ring
118 Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War during the Reconstruction Era (1863–1877).
Many white Southerners denounced them, fearing they would loot and plunder the defeated South
and be politically allied with the Radical Republicans. Sixty men from the North, including educated free blacks
and slaves who had escaped to the North and returned South after the war, were elected as Republicans to Congress.
It was used by Southerners as a pejorative term, referring to the carpet bags (a form of cheap luggage made from carpet fabric)
which many of these newcomers carried.
A)Carpetbaggers
B)Scalawags
C)County democrat clubs
D)Whiskey Ring
E)Tweed Ring
119 Southern Democrats fond of talking about "redeeming" their states from the alleged "misrule and
corruption" wrought by Republican carpetbaggers, scalawags, and their black allies who assumed
control as Congressional Reconstruction began in 1867-68 to impose sharecropping and jim crow.
A)Reign of Terror
B)Enforcement Acts
C)Redeemer Democrats
D)Civil Rights Act 1875
E)Compromise of 1877

120 Informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election.
It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally
ended the Reconstruction Era. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over
Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops
whose support was essential for the survival of Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana.
A)Reign of Terror
B)Enforcement Acts
C)Redeemer Democrats
D)Civil Rights Act 1875
E)Compromise of 1877

121 At the time of Ulysses S. Grant's election to the presidency, white supremacists were conducting
this throughout the South. In outright defiance of the Republican-led federal government,
Southern Democrats formed organizations that violently intimidated blacks and Republicans who
tried to win political power.
A)Reign of Terror
B)Enforcement Acts
C)Redeemer Democrats
D)Civil Rights Act 1875
E)Compromise of 1877

122 United States federal law enacted by Republicans during the
Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens
in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation,
and to prohibit exclusion from jury service.
A)Reign of Terror
B)Enforcement Acts
C)Redeemer Democrats
D)Civil Rights Act 1875
E)Compromise of 1877

123 AKA Civil Rights Act of 1875, it cracked down on Redeemer Democrats/KKK.
A)Reign of Terror
B)Enforcement Acts
C)Redeemer Democrats
D)Civil Rights Act 1875
E)Compromise of 1877

124 Commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces
of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
The battle, which resulted in the defeat of US forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25–26, 1876.
A)George Armstrong Custer
B)Little Big Horn
C)Sitting Bull
D)Crazy Horse
E)Reservation

125 Legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe to segregate them under the US Bureau of Indian Affairs
A)George Armstrong Custer
B)Little Big Horn
C)Sitting Bull
D)Crazy Horse
E)Reservation

126 Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota Sioux in the 19th century. He took up arms against
the United States federal government to fight against encroachment by white American settlers on Indian territory
and to preserve the traditional way of life of the Lakota people and led the fighting at the Little Big Horn in 1876.
A)George Armstrong Custer
B)Little Big Horn
C)Sitting Bull
D)Crazy Horse
E)Reservation

127 U.S. cavalry officer who served with distinction in the American Civil War, is better known for
leading 276 of his men to their deaths in the notorious Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.
A)George Armstrong Custer
B)Little Big Horn
C)Sitting Bull
D)Crazy Horse
E)Reservation

128 Led his people during years of resistance to United States government policies. After the Little Big Horn in 1876,
he was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him,
at a time when authorities feared that he would join the Ghost Dance movement.
A)George Armstrong Custer
B)Little Big Horn
C)Sitting Bull
D)Crazy Horse
E)Reservation

129 Because the area was arid to semiarid and thought to be unfit for agriculture, many nineteenth-century Americans before Lincoln called the West
A) Trans-Mississippi Wasteland.
B) Intermountain Barrens.
C) Prairie Wilderness.
D) Great American Desert.
E) All these answers are correct.

130 Indian Territory, to which several eastern Indian tribes including the Cherokees and Creeks were removed, is now the state of
A) South Dakota.
B) Kansas.
C) Oklahoma.
D) Wyoming.
E) Arkansas.

131 Which of the following was NOT a flaw in the Homestead Act?
A) One hundred sixty acres was not enough land in the West.
B) The law did not provide capital for machines and the like.
C) The land was too costly for most settlers.
D) None of these answers is correct.
E) All these answers are correct.

132 Which type of mining came first as new fields opened?
A) chemical
B) quartz (lode)
C) strip (open pit)
D) hydrolic (water pressure)
E) placer (pan)

133 The "long drive" in the open-range cattle industry referred to the process of
A) rounding up the cattle from great distances all over the range for branding in the spring.
B) moving the cattle south to Texas in the winter and north to Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana in the spring to take advantage of the best pasture.
C) using cattle as oxen to pull covered wagons for settlers seeking homesteads in the West.
D) herding cattle from the ranges in Texas and other remote areas to the nearest accessible railroad
loading point so that the cattle could be shipped to slaughterhouses in the East.
E) cattle drives that avoided homesteaded land.

134 What two groups constituted most of the cowboys in the open range era?
A) Northern whites and African Americans
B) Native Americans and Southern whites
C) Southern whites and African Americans
D) Hispanics and Southern whites
E) Chinese and Hispanics

135 The historian who influenced many with his paper on "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" was
A) Oliver Wendell Holmes.
B) C. W. McCune.
C) Albert Bierstadt.
D) Frederick Jackson Turner.
E) Charles A. Beard.

136 The Wild West shows
A) presented an accurate depiction of Western life.
B) were not very popular with American audiences.
C) featured Buffalo Bill Cody, who had never actually worked in the West.
D) incorporated Indians into the entertainment.
E) featured buffalo shoots.

137 The federal government agency vested with management of Indian relations and the reservations was the
A) Indian Lands Commission.
B) Native American Administration.
C) Office of Assimilation and Concentration.
D) Bureau of Indian Affairs.
E) Freedmen's Bureau.

138 Who were the two principal Indian chiefs who led the forces that massed in the northern plains in
1875-1876 following the Black Hills gold rush?
A) Sitting Bull and Black Kettle
B) Black Eagle and Geronimo
C) Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
D) Geronimo and Iron Eyes
E) Red Eagle and Crazy Horse

139 Construction of the early transcontinental railroad lines was financed mainly by
A) European investors excited about the developing American West.
B) Wall Street investors with close ties to cattle and mining interests.
C) small investors such as farmers and local merchants who wanted to attract rail lines to their communities.
D) government subsidies in the form of favorable loans and land grants.
E) All these answers are correct.

140 What fencing material revolutionized agriculture on the prairies and plains?
A) split rails
B) chain link
C) pickets
D) barbed wire
E) chicken wire

141 Which of the following are listed in the text as farmers' three principal grievances?
A) high interest rates, inequitable freight rates, and inadequate currency
B) high interest rates, persistent production shortfalls, and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories
C) inadequate currency, persistent production shortfalls, and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories
D) poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories, inequitable freight rates, and inadequate currency
E) high interest rates, inequitable freight rates, and poor-quality farm machinery produced by American factories

142 Ira Frederick Aldridge was a black American and later British stage actor and playwright who made
his career after 1824 largely on the London stage and in Europe, especially in Shakespearean roles
A)Grange
B)Limited liability
C)Edmonia Lewis
D)Ira Aldridge

143 An American sculptor who worked for most of her career in Rome, Italy. She was the first woman of
African-American and Native American heritage to achieve international fame
A)Grange
B)Limited liability
C)Edmonia Lewis
D)Ira Aldridge

144 Organization of farmers begun in 1800’s for social, community and economics activities
A)Grange
B)Limited liability
C)Edmonia Lewis
D)Ira Aldridge

145 Corporations offered this protection to investors
A)Grange
B)Limited liability
C)Edmonia Lewis
D)Ira Aldridge

146 (March 17, 1806 – October 8, 1894) was a black American inventor who was widely considered one of the earliest chemical engineers and developed process for refining sugar
A)Benito Juarez
B)Norbert Rillieux
C)Jan Ernst Matzeliger
D)Joseph Glidden
E)Robert E. Lee

147 Invented barbed wire
A)Benito Juarez
B)Norbert Rillieux
C)Jan Ernst Matzeliger
D)Joseph Glidden
E)Robert E. Lee

148 (1852–1889). This black inventor’s machine brought shoes to the masses
A)Benito Juarez
B)Norbert Rillieux
C)Jan Ernst Matzeliger
D)Joseph Glidden
E)Robert E. Lee

149 American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
He commanded the Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865.
A)Benito Juarez
B)Norbert Rillieux
C)Jan Ernst Matzeliger
D)Joseph Glidden
E)Robert E. Lee

150 A national hero and president of Mexico who was allied with Lincoln during the Civil War and sought
to make Mexico into a constitutionally limited republic.
A)Benito Juarez
B)Norbert Rillieux
C)Jan Ernst Matzeliger
D)Joseph Glidden
E)Robert E. Lee

151 Form of business organization created to allow accumulations of capital adequate to finance
economies of scale to mass produce wealth creation and mass production of massive increases in living standards.
A)limited liability
B)corporation
C)sanctity of contract
D)Republican Party
E)Democrat Party

152 Founded to promote slavery and ‘local energy’ to oppose development of economies of scale and
technology such as steam power and mass production
A)limited liability
B)corporation
C)sanctity of contract
D)Republican Party
E)Democrat Party

153 Protection of property which was necessary to provide incentive for anyone to invest in stock by
restricting the possibility of its loss to the amount invested.
A)limited liability
B)corporation
C)sanctity of contract
D)Republican Party
E)Democrat Party

154 Provided by Constitution and upheld beginning with Dartmouth case to protect investment to foster economic activity
A)limited liability
B)corporation
C)sanctity of contract
D)Republican Party
E)Democrat Party

155 Founded to oppose slavery and promote economic development to raise the value of labor and living standards
A)limited liability
B)corporation
C)sanctity of contract
D)Republican Party
E)Democrat Party



140 -155 A
124-139 B
108 -123 C
91 - 107 D