Early American History Exam # 3 - Ziegler
Early American History Exam # 3 - Ziegler


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Early American History Exam # 3 Multiple Choice Quiz 1)The program of the Jacksonian Democrats included
A) spread slavery
B) eliminate Indians
C) destroy the national bank
D) put their party in power
E) all of these

2) The goal of the Jacksonians was to
A) redistribute the wealth of the nation.
B) increase the influence of Southern planters.
C) put as many of their own people in office as possible.
D) abolish the Bank of the United States.
E) all of these

3 The most significant change regarding "party" to take place in the Jacksonian era was the
A) recognition of the value of "third parties."
B) view that institutionalized parties were a desirable part of the political process.
C) view that party leaders should be presidential candidates.
D) emergence of a hard core of party loyalists who picked all candidates for national office.
E) the institution of party nominating conventions.

4 Which of the following did Jackson and the Jacksonians NOT attack?
A) a "class" of permanent officeholders
B) the system by which presidential candidates were selected
C) the "spoils system"
D) the party caucus
E) the nullification movement

5 Which of the following was NOT a ‘democratic’ reform of the age of Jackson?
A) adoption of the national nominating convention for the selection of presidential candidates
B) adoption of the secret ballot
C) popular election of presidential electors in most states
D) removal by most states of property and taxation requirements for voting
E) All these answers are correct.
6 The symbol of the Democrat Party given to them by Whig leaders like Henry Clay because they were founded by Andrew Jackson was
A)a mule
B)a donkey
C)a jackass
D)an elephant
E)a moose

7 The South Carolina Exposition and Protest condemned as unconstitutional the
A) recharter of the national bank.
B) Maysville Road Bill.
C) Indian Removal Act.
D) "tariff of abominations."
E) the repeal of the Force Act.

8 John C. Calhoun advanced the theory of nullification as
A) a moderate alternative to secession.
B) a means of making the national government secondary to the states.
C) a concession to western interests.
D) a way to force Congress to pass a protective tariff.
E) a way of gaining the support of President Jackson.

9 The most significant result of the Eaton affair was that
A) John C. Calhoun became the leader of the Kitchen Cabinet.
B) it led to the Webster-Hayne debate.
C) it ended the presidential practice of anointing an heir.
D) John Eaton became Jackson's secretary of state.
E) Martin Van Buren emerged as Jackson's choice to succeed him.

10 Robert Y. Hayne supported the continued sale of western lands in an effort to
A) aid the expansion of slavery.
B) help finance internal improvements.
C) add to the deposits in the National Bank.
D) get western support for efforts to reduce the tariff.
E) balance the federal budget.

11 Daniel Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" was made in an attempt to
A) refute Calhoun's theory of nullification.
B) affirm the integrity of nullification.
C) support the sale of western lands.
D) both refute Calhoun's theory of nullification and affirm the integrity of nullification.
E) both affirm the integrity of nullification and support the sale of western lands.

12 The "force bill" of 1833
A) authorized the president to use force to see that acts of Congress were obeyed.
B) forced Jackson to stand up to Calhoun.
C) forced the president to consult Congress if he planned to use troops against South Carolina.
D) made it impossible for other southern states to nullify laws.
E) forced Calhoun to resign from the Senate.

13 The Black Hawk War
A) was notable for the cruel treatment of white settlers by Indians.
B) saw the Sauk and Foxes temporarily regain control of part of western Illinois.
C) was over before Jackson entered the White House.
D) occurred because Black Hawk and his followers refused to recognize a treaty by which they ceded their lands to the U.S.
E) cleared the way for the settlement of Chicago.

14 The "Five Civilized Tribes" were the
A) Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw.
B) Cherokee, Cahaba, Iroquois, Mohawk, and Pequot.
C) Cherokee, Creek, Miami, Mowa, and Iroquois.
D) Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, Cahaba, and Pequot.
E) Pontiac, Cherokee, Sioux, Mohicans and Creek.

15 The Cherokee were supported in their unsuccessful battle against removal by
A) President Jackson.
B) the Supreme Court.
C) Congress.
D) the state of Georgia.
E) the state of North Carolina.

16 The Seminoles
A) were never completely removed from their lands in Florida.
B) were removed after a long military struggle with the U.S. Army.
C) lost 1/3 of their tribe on the "Trail of Tears."
D) managed to kill 100 American soldiers before they surrendered.
E) raided southern Georgia and Alabama until the Civil War.

17 When the Indian removal was completed,
A) every Indian west of the Mississippi River was gone.
B) every Indian tribe east of the Mississippi was gone.
C) the Indians were relocated in reservations much like the tribal lands they left.
D) the Indians were far enough removed from whites where they would not face further encroachments.
E) only elements of the Seminoles and Cherokees remained.

18 Under Nicholas Biddle, the national bank
A) withheld credit from new businesses.
B) restrained poorly managed state banks.
C) did little general banking business.
D) operated solely from its Philadelphia headquarters.
E) required that all deposits be in gold and/or silver coins.

19 The national bank was supported by
A) "hard-money" advocates.
B) "soft-money" advocates.
C) western farmers.
D) eastern business interests.
E) Roger B Taney.

20 Determined to reduce the Bank's power even before its charter expired, Jackson
A) fired most of its officials, including Biddle.
B) got Roger Taney to remove government deposits from the Bank.
C) removed government deposits from state banks.
D) exposed the high officials who had been borrowing from the Bank.
E) directed Biddle to call in all loans.

21 After the Panic of 1837, the Democrats' efforts to produce a new financial system resulted in the creation of
A) a third national bank.
B) the "independent treasury" or "subtreasury" system.
C) a system without state banks.
D) a period of relative economic stagnation.
E) Treasury notes held by state banks.

22 The campaign of 1840
A) was the last presidential campaign before newspapers carried the events of the contest to a large audience.
B) featured Whig ads saying Democrats wanted to stop water wheels, steam power, and industrialization
C) emphasized the philosophical purity of the respective parties.
D) saw Democrats wanting to spread slavery and remove Indians.
E) All these answers are correct.

23 The penny press
A) originated in Boston.
B) focused on hard news stories to attract a new audience.
C) took years to become successful.
D) did not use banner headlines to attract a readership.
E) originated the "gossip column."

24 Roger B. Taney's tenure as chief justice
A) marked a sharp break with the Marshall Court in constitutional interpretation.
B) was little more than an extension of the Marshall Court.
C) helped modify Marshall's vigorous nationalism.
D) was greatly influenced by the views of John C. Calhoun.
E) was popular with the anti-slavery movement.

25 The Whig Party
A) favored federal government support of internal improvement projects.
B) encouraged industrialization.
C) advocated knitting the country together into a consolidated economic system.
D) opposed the extension of slavery. E) All these answers are correct.

26 In 1839, a slave ship set sail from Cuba to America. During the long trip, Cinque lead the slaves in an unprecedented uprising.
They a were then held prisoner in Connecticut, and their release becomes the subject of heated debate,
in which they were defended by former President John Quincy
Adams. A)Harriet Tubman
B)Amistad
C)Denmark Vesey
D)Nat Turner
E)Robert Fulton

27 American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat
A)Harriet Tubman
B)Amistad
C)Denmark Vesey
D)Nat Turner
E)Robert Fulton

28 a literate, skilled carpenter and leader among African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina.
He was accused and convicted of being the ringleader of "the rising," a major potential slave revolt
planned for the city in June 1822; he was executed.
A)Harriet Tubman
B)Amistad
C)Denmark Vesey
D)Nat Turner
E)Robert Fulton

29 American abolitionist, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War.
Born into slavery, escaped and subsequently made some thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved people.
A)Harriet Tubman
B)Amistad
C)Denmark Vesey
D)Nat Turner
E)Robert Fulton

30 Enslaved African American who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831.
A)Harriet Tubman
B)Amistad
C)Denmark Vesey
D)Nat Turner
E)Robert Fulton

31 Among the results of the Constitutional republic was the expansion of the right to vote.
A)Cumberland Road
B)Erie Canal
C)Samuel Morse
D)Limited Liability
E)Franchise

32 American painter and inventor who contributed to the invention of the telegraph system.
A)Cumberland Road
B)Erie Canal
C)Samuel Morse
D)Limited Liability
E)Franchise

33 Legal protection available to the shareholders of privately and publicly owned corporations under
which the financial responsibility of each shareholder for the company's debts and obligations is
limited to the par value of his or her fully paid-up shares which allowed for accumulation of capital to finance economies of scale.
A)Cumberland Road
B)Erie Canal
C)Samuel Morse
D)Limited Liability
E)Franchise

34 The building of this in New York as part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System
running from Albany, on the Hudson River, to Buffalo, at Lake Erie opened the Northwest Territory to trade and settlement.
A)Cumberland Road
B)Erie Canal
C)Samuel Morse
D)Limited Liability
E)Franchise

35 The National Road was the first major improved highway in the United States built by the federal government.
Built between 1811 and 1837, the 620-mile (1,000 km) road connected the Potomac
and Ohio Rivers and was a main transport path to the West for thousands of settlers.
A)Cumberland
B)Erie Canal
C)Samuel Morse
D)Limited Liability
E)Franchise

36 An essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.
In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences,
and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.
Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican–American War.
A)Ralph Waldo Emerson
B)Walden
C)Civil Disobedience
D)William Lloyd Garrison
E)Francis Scott Key

37 American lawyer, author, and amateur poet from Frederick, Maryland who wrote the lyrics
for the Star Spangled Banner after seeing the Battle for Fort McHenry during the War of 1812.
A)Ralph Waldo Emerson
B)Walden
C)Civil Disobedience
D)William Lloyd Garrison
E)Francis Scott Key

38 Prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. He is best known as the
editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator.
A)Ralph Waldo Emerson
B)Walden
C)Civil Disobedience
D)William Lloyd Garrison
E)Francis Scott Key

39 Written by transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau it is a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings.
A)Ralph Waldo Emerson
B)Walden
C)Civil Disobedience
D)William Lloyd Garrison
E)Francis Scott Key

40 American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society.
A)Ralph Waldo Emerson
B)Walden
C)Civil Disobedience
D)William Lloyd Garrison
E)Francis Scott Key

41 Runaway slave who joined the Seminole and married Chief Osceola.
A)Frederick Douglas
B)Osceola
C)Jim Crow
D)Abolitionists
E)Morning Dew

42 Sought the end of slavery
A)Frederick Douglas
B)Osceola
C)Jim Crow
D)Abolitionists
E)Morning Dew

43 Laws and customs of segregation
A)Frederick Douglas
B)Osceola
C)Jim Crow
D)Abolitionists
E)Morning Dew

44 Seminole chief
A)Frederick Douglas
B)Osceola
C)Jim Crow
D)Abolitionists
E)Morning Dew

45 African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman. After escaping from
slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement and Republican Party.
A)Frederick Douglas
B)Osceola
C)Jim Crow
D)Abolitionists
E)Morning Dew

46 The American population between 1820 and 1840
A) grew fastest in the South.
B) became increasingly rural.
C) doubled.
D) was not growing as fast as the population of Europe.
E) was migrating westward.

47 Slave codes included
A)prohibition on literacy
B)prohibition on ownership of guns
C)limitations on public gatherings
D)separate churches
E)all of these

48 At the time it was completed, the Erie Canal was
A) already obsolete.
B) beginning to fill with silt from the Great Lakes.
C) the greatest construction project Americans had ever undertaken.
D) cited as an example of how not to construct a canal.
E) already paid for.

49 Which of the following helped enlarge the urban population in this era?
A) immigrants from Europe
B) northeast farmers
C) the growth of the population as a whole
D) immigrants from Europe and the growth of the population as a whole
E) All these answers are correct.

50 The nativist movement wanted to
A) return all land to Native Americans.
B) enact more restrictive naturalization laws.
C) increase aid to education so voters would be literate.
D) make immigrants feel this was their home.
E) end all immigration.

51 In 1836, Connecticut-born gun manufacturer received a U.S. patent for a revolver mechanism that enabled a gun to be fired multiple times without reloading.
A)Eli Whitney
B)Abraham Lincoln
C)George Winchester
D)Samuel Colt
E)Benjamin Tyler Henry

52 During the 1820s and 1830s, railroads
A) played only a secondary role in the nation's transportation system.
B) replaced canals as the most important means of transportation.
C) generated little interest among American businessmen.
D) consisted of a few long lines, which were not connected to water routes.
E) were built alongside the canals.

53 The most profound economic development in mid-nineteenth-century America was the
A) development of a national banking system.
B) creation of corporations.
C) decline of the small-town merchant and general store.
D) rise of the factory.
E) decline of American agriculture.

54 The telegraph
A) was expensive to use and thus offered limited advantages for American industry.
B) slowly developed as a tool for commerce in the United States.
C) was intended to replace newspapers.
D) was invented in just a week by Samuel F. B. Morse.
E) revolutionized communication and business in the US.

55 The beginnings of an industrial labor supply can be traced to
A) overcrowding in American cities.
B) a dramatic increase in food production.
C) the use of slaves in manufacturing industries.
D) an increase in European immigration.
E) an excess agricultural labor force.

56 The Lowell or Waltham system of recruiting labor was to
A) enlist young women from farm families.
B) recruit whole families from rural areas.
C) recruit newly arrived immigrants.
D) enlist young men from farm families.
E) provide liberal pay and living conditions.

57 Most of the industrial growth experienced in the United States between 1840 and 1860 took place in the
A) South and Southwest.
B) Old Northwest.
C) New England region and the mid-Atlantic states.
D) Ohio Valley.
E) southern Great Lakes region.

58 Artisan workers
A) successfully made the transition to factory work.
B) created the nation's earliest trade unions.
C) had abandoned the republican vision of American work.
D) allied themselves with the new capitalist class.
E) developed a niche market catering to the middle class.

59 Which of the following was NOT a technological advance that sped the growth of industry during this period?
A) better machine tools
B) interchangeable parts
C) improved water-power generators
D) new steam engines
E) the development of wood stoves

60 The railroad network that developed during this period linked
A) the Northeast to the Northwest.
B) the Northeast to the Gulf Coast.
C) the East Coast to the West Coast.
D) New York to New Orleans.
E) Richmond to Atlanta.

61 Crucial to the operation of railroads was
A) a system of federal railroad regulations.
B) the invention of the telegraph.
C) slave labor to build the lines.
D) a canal and river system that supported the lines.
E) the fuel switch from wood to coal.

62 The growth of the agricultural economy of the Northwest affected the sectional alignment of the United States because
A) northwestern goods were sold to residents of the Northeast.
B) northeastern industries sold their products to the Northwest.
C) northwestern grain was sold to the South, which allowed it to grow more cotton.
D) the Northwest was able to feed itself so it did not align with any other section.
E) northwestern goods were sold to residents of the Northeast and northeastern industries sold their products to the Northwest.

63 )This ‘protected’ New England textile industry from British competition but cut into had a harmful effect on Southern cotton plantations.
A)American Colonization Society
B)Filibusters
C)Richard Allen
D)Tariff of Abominations
E)Wade Davis

64 Set up to resettle slaves in Africa
B)Filibusters
C)Richard Allen
D)Tariff of Abominations
E)Wade Davis

65 A minister, educator, writer, and one of America's most active and influential black leaders. In 1794
he founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first independent black denomination in the United States.
A)American Colonization Society
B)Filibusters
C)Richard Allen
D)Tariff of Abominations
E)Wade Davis

66 Someone who engages in an unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution.
There were several such efforts to create central American slave states.
A)American Colonization Society
B)Filibusters
C)Richard Allen
D)Tariff of Abominations
E)Wade Davis

67 1864 bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by Radical Republicans
A)American Colonization Society
B)Filibusters
C)Richard Allen
D)Tariff of Abominations
E)Wade Davis

68 A minority of Southern whites owned slaves,
A) and nonslaveholders dominated the political system in the region.
B) but the slaveholding planters exercised power and influence far in excess of their numbers.
C) so slavery was not very important in the lives of most whites.
D) and most whites were happy with it that way.
E) and they treated the slaves as equals.

69 The South had a "colonial" economy in that
A) most of its land was owned by outside interests.
B) it employed slave labor.
C) it produced raw materials and purchased finished products.
D) it had little political power.
E) it was taxed without representation.

70 The typical white Southerner was
A) a planter with many slaves and a lot of land.
B) a small-town merchant or professional man.
C) extremely poor.
D) a modest yeoman farmer.
E) a hunter/trapper.

71 Although most whites did not own slaves, most supported the plantation system because
A) it controlled the slaves.
B) they had economic ties to it.
C) slaveholder and nonslaveholder were often related.
D) they identified with fierce regional loyalties.
E) All these answers are correct.

72 The slave codes of the Southern states
A) imposed a uniformly harsh and dismal regime for Southern slaves.
B) allowed slaves a great deal of flexibility and autonomy.
C) created a paternal and benevolent relationship between master and slave.
D) contained rigid provisions but were unevenly enforced.
E) allowed slaves to buy their freedom.

73 Slaves seemed to prefer to live on larger plantations because
A) masters supervised workers personally and often worked alongside them.
B) they had more opportunities for privacy and for a social world of their own.
C) masters seemed more concerned with their health and welfare.
D) the work was lighter and provisions were more abundant.
E) it was easier to loaf on the job.

74 Which of the following statements about Southern slavery is true?
A) Most of the slaveowners owned more than ten slaves.
B) Most of the slaves lived on farms with less than ten slaves.
C) The majority of slaveowners were small farmers, but the majority of slaves lived on plantations of medium or large size.
D) The majority of slaveowners lived on medium or large plantations, but most slaves lived and worked on small farms.
E) most slaves had some unsupervised time during the workday.

75 Slave resistance in the South often took all of the following forms EXCEPT
A) armed revolts.
B) petty thievery.
C) work slowdowns.
D) running away.
E) All these answers are correct.

76 Slaves used music
A) primarily to entertain whites.
B) solely as a means of entertaining themselves.
C) that was not influenced heavily by African music.
D) as a means of expressing their dreams and frustrations.
E) to pass the time of day.

77 African-American religion
A) was condoned by the masters.
B) emphasized deliverance in the next world.
C) sometimes combined Christianity with traditional African religions.
D) primarily occurred under the guidance of white ministers.
E) encouraged slave revolts.

78 The historical debate over the nature of plantation slavery demonstrates
A) the difficulty in researching a field in which few documents exist.
B) the extent to which historians are influenced by the times in which they write.
C) basic agreement that slavery was a brutal, savage institution that dehumanized all participants.
D) that black slaves in the South were generally content and happy with their lot.
E) slavery was an American invention.

79 In The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (1976), Herbert Gutman argues that
A) slave families were better treated and lived in greater comfort than did Northern industrial workers.
B) the black family survived slavery with impressive strength.
C) slavery destroyed the significance of the father in the black family.
D) slaves were unable to establish strong family ties.
E) slavery promoted strong family ties.

80 American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845. He is most remembered for his opinions in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
and The Amistad case, and especially for his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century,
this work is a cornerstone of early American jurisprudence. It is the second comprehensive treatise on the provisions of the U.S. Constitution and remains
a critical source of historical information about the forming of the American republic and the early struggles to define its law. He opposed Jacksonian democracy,
saying it was "oppression" of property rights by republican governments when popular majorities began (in the 1830s) to restrict and erode the property rights of the minority of rich men.
A)John Marshall
B)Roger Taney
C)Dred Scott
D)Joseph Story
E)Henry Clay

81 American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. After serving three non-consecutive terms
as Speaker of the House of Representatives, he helped elect John Quincy Adams as president, and Adams subsequently appointed him as Secretary of State.
He served four separate terms in the Senate, including stints from 1831 to 1842 and from 1849 to 1852. He ran for the presidency in 1824, 1832 and 1844,
and unsuccessfully sought his party's nomination in 1840 and 1848. He was one of a handful of national leaders to actively work from 1811 to the 1850s,
defining the issues, proposing nationalistic solutions, and creating the Whig Party in opposing the Democrat party of the ‘jackass.’
A)John Marshall
B)Roger Taney
C)Dred Scott
D)Joseph Story
E)Henry Clay

82 A leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800. He was Secretary of State under President John Adams.
The longest-serving Chief Justice and the fourth longest-serving justice in U.S. Supreme Court history, he dominated the Court for over three decades (34 years)
and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review,
by disregarding purported laws if they violate the constitution. Thus, he cemented the position of the American judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government.
Furthermore, his court made several important decisions relating to federalism, affecting the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic.
In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.
A)John Marshall
B)Roger Taney
C)Dred Scott
D)Joseph Story
E)Henry Clay

83 The fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He delivered the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), that ruled,
among other things, that African-Americans, having been considered inferior at the time the United States Constitution was drafted, were not part of the original community of citizens and,
whether free or slave, could not be considered citizens of the United States, which created an uproar among abolitionists and the free states of the northern U.S. A Jacksonian Democrat,
he was made Chief Justice by Jackson after unconstitutionally withdrawing funds from the National Bank for Jackson, destroying it and causing and economic crisis.
A)John Marshall
B)Roger Taney
C)Dred Scott
D)Joseph Story
E)Henry Clay

84 This held that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves,” whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and
therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.
An enslaved man of "the negro African race" who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney,
the court denied the request. The decision was only the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.
A)John Marshall
B)Roger Taney
C)Dred Scott
D)Joseph Story
E)Henry Clay

85 Provided for the admission of Maine as a free state along with Missouri as a slave state, thus maintaining the balance of power between North and South.
As part of the compromise, slavery was prohibited north of the 36°30′ parallel, excluding Missouri. President James Monroe signed the legislation on April 6, 1820.
Earlier, on February 3, 1819, Representative James Tallmadge Jr., a Jeffersonian Republican from New York, submitted two amendments to Missouri's request for statehood, which included restrictions on slavery.
Southerners objected to any bill which imposed federal restrictions on slavery, believing that slavery was a state
issue settled by the Constitution. However, with the Senate evenly split at the opening of the debates, both sections possessing 11 states, the admission of Missouri would give the South an advantage.
Northern critics including Federalists and Democratic-Republicans objected to the expansion of slavery into the Louisiana Purchase territory
A)Charles River Bridge
B)Missouri Compromise
C)Compromise of 1820
D)Tallmadge Amendment
E)Whigs

86 AKA Missouri Compromise
A)Charles River Bridge
B)Missouri Compromise
C)Compromise of 1820
D)Tallmadge Amendment
E)Whigs

87 Having been granted a charter to construct a bridge over the river connecting Boston and Charlestown, roughly where the present-day Charlestown Bridge is located,
when the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sanctioned another company to build the Warren Bridge in 1828, that would be very close in proximity to the first bridge and would connect the same two cities,
the proprietors of the first bridge claimed that the Massachusetts legislature had broken its contract with the Company, and thus the contract clause had been violated. The owners
of the first bridge claimed that the charter had implied exclusive rights it. The Court ultimately sided with Warren Bridge. This decision was received with mixed opinions, and had some impact
on the remainder of Taney's tenure as Chief Justice.
A)Charles River Bridge
B)Missouri Compromise
C)Compromise of 1820
D)Tallmadge Amendment
E)Whigs

88 Proposed amendment to a bill requesting the Territory of Missouri to be admitted to the Union as a free state.
This amendment was submitted on February 13, 1819,
by a Democratic-Republican from New York. In response to the debate in Congress regarding the admission of Missouri
as a state and its effect on the existing even balance of slave and free states. In opposition of slavery, sought to impose conditions on Missouri
that would extinguish slavery within a generation.
A)Charles River Bridge
B)Missouri Compromise
C)Compromise of 1820
D)Tallmadge Amendment
E)Whigs

89 Political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four US presidents belonged to the party while in office. It emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonians,
pulling together former members of the National Republican (one of the successors of the Democratic-Republican Party) and Anti-Masonic Parties.
Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s. It originally formed in opposition to the policies
of President Andrew Jackson (in office 1829–37) and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of the US Congress over the Presidency
and favored a program of modernization, banking, and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing. It appealed to entrepreneurs, planters,
reformers and the emerging urban middle class It included many active Protestants, and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal and opposed expansion of slavery and polygamy.
A)Charles River Bridge
B)Missouri Compromise
C)Compromise of 1820
D)Tallmadge Amendment
E)Whigs

90 Slave families
A) consistently operated on the model of the "nuclear family."
B) condemned premarital pregnancies.
C) generally lived on a single plantation.
D) placed much emphasis on extended kinship networks.
E) emulated white family values.

91 Accepted an offer by Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico. France had invaded the Mexican Republic in the winter of 1861, as part of the War of the French Intervention.
Seeking to legitimize French rule in the Americas, Napoleon III invited him to establish a new Mexican monarchy for him. With the support of the French army,
and a group of conservative Mexican monarchists hostile to the classical liberal administration of new Mexican President Benito Juárez, he traveled to Mexico.
Once there, he declared himself Emperor of Mexico on 10 April 1864. The Empire managed to gain recognition by major European powers including Britain, Austria, and Prussia.
The United States however, continued to recognize Juárez as the legal president of Mexico. He never completely defeated the Mexican Republic;
Republican forces led by President Benito Juárez continued to be active during his rule. With the end of the American Civil War in 1865, the United States (which had been too distracted by its own civil war
to confront the Europeans' 1861 invasion of what it considered to be its sphere of influence) began more explicit aid of President Juárez's forces.
Matters worsened for the Emperor after the French armies withdrew from Mexico in 1866. His self-declared empire collapsed, and he was captured and executed by the Mexican government in 1867.
A)Simon Bolivar
B)Bernardo O’Higgins
C)Benito Juarez
D)Jose de San Martin
E)Maximillian

92) Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.
A)Simon Bolivar
B)Bernardo O’Higgins
C)Benito Juarez
D)Jose de San Martin
E)Maximillian

93) Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile (1817–1823), he is considered one of Chile's founding fathers,
A)Simon Bolivar
B)Bernardo O’Higgins
C)Benito Juarez
D)Jose de San Martin
E)Maximillian

94) He was of poor, rural, indigenous origins, but he became a well-educated, urban professional and politician. He identified primarily as a Classical Liberal and he wrote only briefly about his indigenous heritage.
He was a key figure in the group of professional men in Mexico's indigenous south, and his rise to national power had its roots in that power base.
He held power during the tumultuous decade of the Liberal Reform and French invasion. In 1858 as head of the Supreme Court, he became president of Mexico
by the succession mandated by the Constitution of 1857 when moderate liberal President Ignacio Comonfort was forced to resign by Mexican conservatives.
He remained in the presidential office until his death by natural causes in 1872. He weathered the War of the Reform (1858–60), a civil war between Liberals and Conservatives,
and then the French invasion (1862–67), which was supported by Mexican Conservatives. Never relinquishing office although forced into exile in areas of Mexico not controlled by the French,
he tied classical Liberalism to Mexican nationalism and maintained that he was the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian.
When the French-backed Second Mexican Empire fell in 1867, the Mexican Republic with him as president was restored to full power.
He is now "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." He was a practical and skilled politician,
controversial in his lifetime and beyond. He had an understanding of the importance of a working relationship with the United States A)Simon Bolivar
B)Bernardo O’Higgins
C)Benito Juarez
D)Jose de San Martin
E)Maximillian

95) Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule
A)Simon Bolivar
B)Bernardo O’Higgins
C)Benito Juarez
D)Jose de San Martin
E)Maximillian

96) Best known for the book The Harmony of Interests: Agricultural, Manufacturing, and Commercial (1851), which denigrates the "British System" of government managed
trade capitalism in comparison to the American System of developmental capitalism, which uses tariff protection and government intervention to encourage production and national self-sufficiency,
he was a top advisor to the Whigs and Abraham Lincoln and argued that rising the value of labor through industrialization and technology was the only way to eliminate slavery.
A)Santa Anna
B)Erasmus Peshine Smith
C)Henry Carey
D)Free Soil
E)Know Nothings

97 One of the leading American economists of the 19th century. His ideas on industrial development and protectionism helped shape the economic history of Japan,
as in the case of Friedrich List in Germany. As a specialist in international law, he also played a key role in ending coolie-wage slavery.
A)Santa Anna
B)Erasmus Peshine Smith
C)Henry Carey
D)Free Soil
E)Know Nothings

98 Short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections.
Its main purpose was to oppose the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery.
It also sometimes worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against freed African Americans and joined with Whigs to form the Republican Party.
A)Santa Anna
B)Erasmus Peshine Smith
C)Henry Carey
D)Free Soil
E)Know Nothings

99 Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence. He led the fight against Texan independence.
A)Santa Anna
B)Erasmus Peshine Smith
C)Henry Carey
D)Free Soil
E)Know Nothings

100 Renamed the American Party in 1855 and commonly known as the "Know Nothing" movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s.
It was primarily anti-Catholic and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society. The movement briefly emerged as a major political party
in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common appellation.
A)Santa Anna
B)Erasmus Peshine Smith
C)Henry Carey
D)Free Soil
E)Know Nothings

101 When gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California, he news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
The sudden influx of immigration and gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, and California became one of the few American states
to go directly to statehood without first being a territory, in the Compromise of 1850. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican
territory to the home state of the first nominee for the Republican Party.
A)Ostend Manifesto
B)Wilmot Proviso
C)Bleeding Kansas
D)49ers
E)Guadalupe Hidalgo

102 The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848 With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war.
The treaty called for the U.S. to pay USD $15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to USD $3.25 million.
It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico,
most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries
or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights. The U.S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14.
The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny in general, and rejected this expansion in particular.
A)Ostend Manifesto
B)Wilmot Proviso
C)Bleeding Kansas
D)49ers
E)Guadalupe Hidalgo

103 American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War. The conflict over this was one of the major events leading to the American Civil War.
A)Ostend Manifesto
B)Wilmot Proviso
C)Bleeding Kansas
D)49ers
E)Guadalupe Hidalgo

104 Document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain
while implying that the U.S. should declare war if Spain refused.
Cuba's annexation had long been a goal of U.S. slaveholding expansionists, and was supported by a faction in Cuba itself.
At the national level, American leaders had been satisfied to have the island remain in weak Spanish hands so long as it did not pass
to a stronger power such as Britain or France. It proposed a shift in foreign policy,
justifying the use of force to seize Cuba in the name of national security.
It resulted from debates over slavery in the United States, Manifest Destiny, and the Monroe Doctrine, as slaveholders sought new territory for slavery's expansion.
During the administration of President Franklin Pierce, a pro-Southern Democrat, Southern expansionists called for acquiring Cuba as a slave state,
but the outbreak of violence following the Kansas–Nebraska Act left the administration unsure of how to proceed.
A)Ostend Manifesto
B)Wilmot Proviso
C)Bleeding Kansas
D)49ers
E)Guadalupe Hidalgo

105 Series of violent political confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 involving anti-slavery "Free-Staters"
and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian", or "southern" elements in the state.
At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether it would allow or outlaw slavery, and thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for "popular sovereignty"—that is, the decision about slavery was to be made by the settlers (rather than outsiders).
It would be decided by votes—or more exactly which side had more votes counted by officials.
Pro-slavery forces said every settler had the right to bring his own property, including slaves, into the territory.
Anti-slavery "free soil" forces said the rich slaveholders would buy up all the good farmland and work it with black slaves,
leaving little or no opportunity for non-slaveholders.
It was a conflict between anti-slavery forces in the North and pro-slavery forces from the South over the issue of slavery in the United States,
and its violence indicated that compromise was unlikely, and thus it presaged the Civil War.
A)Ostend Manifesto
B)Wilmot Proviso
C)Bleeding Kansas
D)49ers
E)Guadalupe Hidalgo

106 Although it can be interpreted as a continued attack on native peoples, it also is indicative of the alliance some Indian tribes had struck with the Confederacy.
A)Bear Flag
B)John C. Fremont
C)John Sutter
D)Matthew Perry
E)Washita Treaty

107 For twenty-five days in 1846, militarily controlled an area north of San Francisco, in and around what is now Sonoma County State of California.
In June 1846, a number of American immigrants in Alta California rebelled against the Mexican department's government.
The immigrants had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had been threatened with expulsion from California because they had entered without official permission.
Mexican officials were concerned about a coming war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California
. The rebellion was soon overtaken by the beginning of the Mexican–American War. The name "California Republic" appeared only on the flag the insurgents raised in Sonoma.
It indicated their aspiration of forming a republican government for California. The insurgents elected military officers
but no civil structure was ever established. The flag featured an image of a California grizzly bear
A)Bear Flag
B)John C. Fremont
C)John Sutter
D)Matthew Perry
E)Washita Treaty

108 His fort in the area would eventually become Sacramento, California, the state's capital. Although he became famous following the discovery of gold by his employee James W. Marshall at the mill.
A)Bear Flag
B)John C. Fremont
C)John Sutter
D)Matthew Perry
E)Washita Treaty

109 Commodore of the United States Navy and commanded a number of ships. He served in several wars, most notably in the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War (1846-48).
He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. He took an interest in the education of naval officers
and assisted in the development of an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy.
With the advent of the steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the US Navy and came to be considered The Father of the Steam Navy in the United States.
A)Bear Flag
B)John C. Fremont
C)John Sutter
D)Matthew Perry
E)Washita Treaty

110 One of the early American settlers in California who led the effort for its
independence from Mexico, in 1856, became the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party
for the office of President of the United States.
A)Bear Flag
B)John C. Fremont
C)John Sutter
D)Matthew Perry
E)Washita Treaty

111 When South Carolina seceded from the Union , on April 12, 1861, Confederate artillery fired on the Union garrison.
These were the first shots of the war and continued all day, watched by many civilians in a celebratory spirit. The fort had been cut off from its supply line and surrendered the next day.
A)Lincoln Douglas
B)John Breckinridge
C)Fort Sumter
D)Crittenden Compromise
E)Senate

112 He allied with Stephen A. Douglas in support of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. After reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term.
He was nominated for vice-president at the 1856 Democratic National Convention to balance a ticket headed by James Buchanan. The Democrats won the election,
but he had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, could not express his opinions in debates.
In 1859, he was elected to succeed Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittenden's term in 1861.
As vice president, he joined Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party.
After Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention, the party's northern and southern factions held
rival conventions in Baltimore that nominated Douglas and him, respectively, for president.
A third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell. These three men split the Southern vote,
while more anti-slavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won all but three electoral votes in the North, allowing him to win the election.
He carried most of the Southern states. Taking his seat in the Senate, he urged compromise to preserve the Union.
Unionists were in control of the state legislature, and gained more support when Confederate forces moved into Kentucky.
HE fled behind Confederate lines
A)Lincoln Douglas
B)John Breckinridge
C)Fort Sumter
D)Crittenden Compromise
E)Senate

113 an unsuccessful proposal introduced on December 18, 1860. It aimed to resolve the secession crisis of 1860–1861 by addressing the fears and grievances about slavery
that led many slave-holding states to contemplate secession from the United States. It proposed six constitutional amendments and four Congressional resolutions
and was introduced the package on December 18. It was tabled on December 31. It guaranteed the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states and addressed
Southern demands in regard to fugitive slaves and slavery in the District of Columbia. It proposed extending the Missouri Compromise line to the west,
with slavery prohibited north of the 36° 30′ parallel and guaranteed south of it. The compromise included a clause that it could not be repealed or amended. Popular among Southern members of the Senate,
it was generally unacceptable to the Republicans, who opposed the expansion of slavery beyond the states where it already existed into the territories.
A)Lincoln Douglas
B)John Breckinridge
C)Fort Sumter
D)Crittenden Compromise
E)Senate

114 When Republicans won control of this in early 1861, Southern Democrats began the effort to secede from the Union.
A)Lincoln Douglas
B)John Breckinridge
C)Fort Sumter
D)Crittenden Compromise
E)Senate

115 A series of seven debates between the Republican candidate for the United States Senate from Illinois, and incumbent the Democratic Party candidate.
At the time, U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures; thus they were trying for their respective parties to win control of the Illinois General Assembly.
The debates previewed the issues that the country would face in the aftermath of the 1860 presidential election.
Although Illinois was a free state, the main issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery in the United States.
A)Lincoln Douglas
B)Douglas Breckinridge
C)Fort Sumter
D)Crittenden Compromise
E)Senate

116 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier, and politician.
He is commonly referred to in popular culture by the epithet "King of the Wild Frontier".
He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives and served in the Texas Revolution where he died at the Alamo.
A)Sam Houston
B)Stephen Austin
C)Davy Crockett
D)Alamo
E)San Jacinto

117 American soldier and politician. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto
secured the independence of Texas from Mexico in one of the shortest decisive battles in modern history.
He was also the only governor within a future Confederate state to oppose secession
and to refuse an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, a decision that led to his removal from office by the Texas secession convention
A)Sam Houston
B)Stephen Austin
C)Davy Crockett
D)Alamo
E)San Jacinto

118 Pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna
launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas, United States),
killing all of the Texian defenders. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians
—both Texas settlers and adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army.
A)Sam Houston
B)Stephen Austin
C)Davy Crockett
D)Alamo
E)San Jacinto

119 Known as the "Father of Texas", and the founder of Texas, he led the second, and ultimately,
the successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States to the region in 1825.
A)Sam Houston
B)Stephen Austin
C)Davy Crockett
D)Alamo
E)San Jacinto

120 Texans, buoyed by a desire for revenge for the Alamo, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army here,
on April 21, 1836, ending the revolution and securing Texas independence.
A)Sam Houston
B)Stephen Austin
C)Davy Crockett
D)Alamo
E)San Jacinto

121 Much of his writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral metaphors with an anti-Puritan inspiration.
His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism.
His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages
and deep psychological complexity. The Scarlet Letter may be his most famous work.
A)Edgar Allan Poe
B)Nathaniel Hawthorne
C)James Fenimore Cooper
D)Stephan Crane
E)Herman Melville

122 American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period.
His best known works include Typee, a romantic account of his experiences in Polynesian life, and his whaling novel Moby-Dick.
A)Edgar Allan Poe
B)Nathaniel Hawthorne
C)James Fenimore Cooper
D)Stephan Crane
E)Herman Melville

123 Prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. His historical romances of frontier
and Indian life in the early American days created a unique form of American literature. He lived most of his life in Cooperstown, New York,
He attended Yale University for three years, where he was a member of the Linonian Society, but was expelled for misbehavior.
Before embarking on his career as a writer, he served in the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, which greatly influenced many of his novels and other writings.
The novel that launched his career was The Spy, a tale about counterespionage set during the Revolutionary War and published in 1821.
He also wrote numerous sea stories, and his best-known works are five historical novels of the frontier period known as the Leatherstocking Tales.
Among naval historians, his works on the early U.S. Navy have been well received,
but they were sometimes criticized by his contemporaries. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans.
A)Edgar Allan Poe
B)Nathaniel Hawthorne
C)James Fenimore Cooper
D)Stephan Crane
E)Herman Melville

124 American writer, editor, and literary critic, he is best known for his poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre.
He is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole,
and he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre
and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction,
but his works including the Raven, Fall of the House of Usher, and Pit and Pendulum are among his best known. He was also active in Whig party politics
A)Edgar Allan Poe
B)Nathaniel Hawthorne
C)James Fenimore Cooper
D)Stephan Crane
E)Herman Melville

125 American poet, novelist, and short story writer. Prolific throughout his short life,
he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism.
He is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation for works such as the Red Badge of Courage.
A)Edgar Allan Poe
B)Nathaniel Hawthorne
C)James Fenimore Cooper
D)Stephan Crane
E)Herman Melville

126 Peter Wood’s study of slavery in South Carolina in the early 1700’s
A)Diaspora
B)Black Majority
C)Before the Mayflower
D)The World They Made Together
E)The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

127 The dispersal of Africans to coastal North America (Middle Passage), the Deep South, urban centers (Great Migration), and so on.
A)Diaspora
B)Black Majority
C)Before the Mayflower
D)The World They Made Together
E)The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

128 Mark Twain classic novel about a young Southern boy helping a runaway slave escape down the Mississippi River.
A)Diaspora
B)Black Majority
C)Before the Mayflower
D)The World They Made Together
E)The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

129 Michel Sobel exploration of the extent to which African culture affected the culture of black Americans
and with an almost totally new assessment of slave culture as African-American.
Accompanying this new awareness of the African values brought into America, however, is an automatic assumption that white traditions influenced black ones.
In this view, although the institution of slaver is seen as important,
blacks are not generally treated as actors nor is their "divergent culture" seen as having had a wide-ranging effect on whites.
Historians working in this area generally assume two social systems in America, one black and one white, and cultural divergence between slaves and masters.
It is the thesis of this book that blacks, Africans, and Afro-Americans, deeply influenced white's perceptions, values, and identity, and that although two world views existed,
there was a deep symbiotic relatedness that must be explored if we are to understand either or both of them.
This exploration raises many questions and suggests many possibilities and probabilities, but it also establishes how thoroughly
whites and blacks intermixed within the system of slavery and how extensive was the resulting cultural interaction.
A)Diaspora
B)Black Majority
C)Before the Mayflower
D)The World They Made Together
E)The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

130 Lerone Bennett study that traces black history from its origins in western Africa,
through the transatlantic journey and slavery, the Reconstruction period, the Jim Crow era,
and the civil rights movement, to life in the 1990s.
A)Diaspora
B)Black Majority
C)Before the Mayflower
D)The World They Made Together
E)The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

131 Andrew Jackson’s series of forced and deadly relocations of Native American nations in the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
The removal included members of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, from their ancestral homelands in the southeastern U.S.
to an area west of the Mississippi River that had been designated as Indian Territory.
A)Indian Removal Act
B)Trail of Tears
C)Worchester vs Georgia
D)Dorr war
E)Force Act

132 Series of four acts passed by Republican Reconstruction supporters in the Congress between May 31, 1870, and March 1, 1875,
to protect the constitutional rights guaranteed to blacks by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
A)Indian Removal Act
B)Trail of Tears
C)Worchester vs Georgia
D)Dorr war
E)Force Act

133 attempt by middle-class residents to force broader democracy in the U.S. state of Rhode Island,
where a small rural elite was in control of government.
It mobilized the disenfranchised to demand changes to the state's electoral rules.
A)Indian Removal Act
B)Trail of Tears
C)Worchester vs Georgia
D)Dorr war
E)Force Act

134 Passed by Democrat Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to
negotiate with Indian tribes in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.
A)Indian Removal Act
B)Trail of Tears
C)Worchester vs Georgia
D)Dorr war
E)Force Act

135 In 1832 the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans
from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. Andrew Jackson said John Marshall should enforce it and ignored the ruling.
A)Indian Removal Act
B)Trail of Tears
C)Worchester vs Georgia
D)Dorr war
E)Force Act

136 Pejorative term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury
to receive surplus government funds in 1833. Sometimes mistaken with wildcat banks;
however, the two are distinct types of institutions that arose during the same period of time,
although some these were known to engage in the practices of wildcat banking,
and were involved in financing slavery and the cotton economy rather than industrialization.
A)Pet banks
B)Daniel Raymond
C)Panic of 1837
D)Sojourner Truth
E)Samuel Clemons

137 An African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. She was born into slavery in Swartekill,
Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant
daughter to freedom in 1826. After going to court to recover her son,
in 1828 she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man.
A)Pet banks
B)Daniel Raymond
C)Panic of 1837
D)Sojourner Truth
E)Samuel Clemons

138 Better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Among his novels are The Adventures of
Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,
the latter often called "The Great American Novel".
A)Pet banks
B)Daniel Raymond
C)Panic of 1837
D)Sojourner Truth
E)Samuel Clemons

139 the first important political economist to appear in the United States. He authored Thoughts on Political Economy (1820)
and The Elements of Political Economy (1823). He theorized that "labor creates wealth," which may have been an improvement
based on the thinking of Adam Smith of Europe. He thought that the economy of England
was actually the economy of the higher-ranking members of that society,
and not the economy of the entire nation. He held that wealth is not an aggregation of exchange values,
as Adam Smith had conceived it and held that wealth
is the capacity or opportunity to acquire the necessaries and conveniences of life by labor.
A)Pet banks
B)Daniel Raymond
C)Panic of 1837
D)Sojourner Truth
E)Samuel Clemons

140 A financial crisis in the United States after Jackson destroyed the National Bank
that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s.
Profits, prices, and wages went down while unemployment went up. Pessimism abounded during the time
On May 10, 1837, banks in New York City suspended specie payments,
meaning that they would no longer redeem commercial paper in specie at full face value.
Despite a brief recovery in 1838, the recession persisted for approximately seven years.
Banks collapsed, businesses failed, prices declined, and thousands of workers lost their jobs.
Unemployment may have been as high as 25% in some locales. The years 1837 to 1844 were,
generally speaking, years of deflation in wages and prices.
A)Pet banks
B)Daniel Raymond
C)Panic of 1837
D)Sojourner Truth
E)Samuel Clemons

131-140 A 121-130 B 111-120 C 101-110 D