Study Guide for Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v Madison -- first case of judicial review.
McCulloch v Maryland -- "the power to tax is the power to destroy"
Gibbons v Ogden -- steamboat case on regulation of business.
Lochner v New York -- Supreme Court had prevented state regulation
of labor practices as infringement of privacy in 1905
Mapp v Ohio -- established exclusionary rule
Schenck v United States -- upheld conviction of anti-war protestors during WWI
under Espionage Act on the rule of 'clear and present danger'
restriction of free speech
United States v O'Brien -- upheld conviction of a draft card burner
Dennis v United States -- upheld communist conviction under
a law making it illegal to advocate violent
overthrow of US gov't
Texas v Johnson -- burning US flag protected by free expression
New York Times v United States -- allowed publication of Pentagon Papers
on grounds of no prior restraint
Barron v Baltimore -- 1833 decision limiting Bill of Rights
protections to federal government.
Gitlow v New York -- began extending Bill of Rights against
state governments through the 14th Amendment
Near v Minnesota -- in 1931, Supreme Court began to extend
selective incorporation of Bill of Rights.
Brandenburg v Ohio -- in 1969, Supreme Court overturned
Klansman's conviction on basis
that no one was likely to take him seriously
Skokie case -- permitted Nazi march through a predominately
Jewish suburb of Chicago.
New York Times v Sullivan -- libel of public officials requires proof of actual malice
Roth v United States -- established obscenity test of 'purient interest'
Miller v California -- contemporary community standards
and serious artistic, literary, political or social value
was used as test of obscenity.
Reno v ACLU -- involved internet and ruled Decency Act unconstitutional.
Engel v Vitale -- establishment clause prohibits reciting
of prayers in public schools.
Roe v Wade -- permitted abortion during first trimester.
Griswold v Connecticut -- declared right of privacy for Americans,
invalidating state law prohibiting use of birth control
Webster v Reproductive Health Services -- allowed state law prohibiting abortion
by public employees or in public hospitals.
Planned Parenthood v Casey -- allowed certain state restrictions on abortions
including waiting period, notification of spouse or parents.
Bowers v Hardwick -- upheld law prohibiting sodomy
Whren v United States -- upheld a conviction of drug possession
without probable cause made
during minor traffic violation stop
Gideon v Wainwright -- accused have right to legal counsel.
Miranda v Arizona -- accused must be informed of their rights.
Felker v Turpin -- allowed restriction of habeas corpus for state prison inmates
Plessy v Ferguson -- 1896 case which made segregation constitutional
Brown v Bd of Education -- 1954 case which declared segregation unconstitutional.
Lau v Nichols -- schools with lots of non-English speaking students
must offer teaching in 'native tongues.'
Bowers v Hardwick -- would not end state law prohibiting homosexual acts.
Romer v Evans -- struck down Colorado amendment
which violated equal protection for gays.
Craig v Boren -- expanded categories of classifications to sex/gender
distinction but under strict scrutiny
US v Virginia -- Citadel case
Rostker v Goldberg -- upheld male only draft.
Bakke case -- sharpely curtailed affirmative action
Adarand v.Pena -- limited affirmative action which discriminated
against non-minorities by invalidating rigid quotas.
Fullilove v Klutnick -- upheld quota system for set asides for minority firms.
Swann case -- bussing case
Loving v Virginia -- declared laws prohibiting 'interracial' marriage
to be unconstitutional.
Shelley v Kraemer -- prohibited restrictive covenants.
US v Lopez -- limited the law creating gun free zones around schools
because it exceeded federal authority
Dred Scott -- pre civil war case in which the court ruled
that slaves as property had no rights
Buckley v Vallejo -- challenge to campaign finance reform that declared
political action committes legal
Harper v Virginia -- declared poll taxes unconstitutional
Faragher v City of Boca Raton -- employers are responsible for preventing
and eliminating harassment at work.
Burlington Industries v Ellreth -- an employee could sue for sexual harassment
even without being able to show job related harm
Barron v Baltimore -- 1833 case holding that bill of rights restrained federal
but not state government
Lemon v Kurtzmann -- restricted aid to parochial schools to that
with secular purpose and only where it did not
promote or inhibit religion
Zurcher v Stanford Daily -- a search warrant could be applied to a newspaper
as well as anyone else without violating freedom of press
Miami Herald v Tornillo -- held that state could not force paper to print replies by
candidates it had criticized
United States v Playboy -- the provision of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
which allowed banning of sexually oriented programming
by cable networks was limited such that any such regulation
must be narrowly tailored to promote a compelling government
NAACP v Alabama -- ruled that an organization did not have to reveal
its membership lists to protect them from harassment
Furmann v Georgia -- court overturned the death penalty
In Re: Gault -- established certain legal rights for minors
Korematsu v United States -- in 1944, court upheld wartime Japanese internment
Texas v Gregory Lee Johnson -- struck down law banning burning of flag
because it was symbolic speech
Reed v Reed --arbitrary gender distinctions violate equal protection clause
of the 14th Amendment -- for first time, court upheld claim of gender discrimination